Justification of the parameters and compiling of the forest machine chassis can not be performed without determining the weight of the load. The weight of the load depends on the wood density. The wood density within the growing tree is heterogeneous. The aim of this study is to develop mathematical models to calculate the average density of the tree trunk area depending on its location in the trunk. The research is based on the construction of approximating dependences of changes in the average wood density in the longitudinal direction of the trunk by minimum deviation method. The obtained mathematical models establish the relationship of density changes in the longitudinal direction of the trunk for four forest-forming species of the Republic of Karelia: pine, spruce, birch and aspen.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
In the course of the system analysis of scientific and technical information, including patents, it has been established that currently the forestry sector is actively patenting technical and technological solutions for basic operations, but not enough attention is paid to building knowledge bases in the field of technologies and equipment for non-timber forest resources. The formation of databases in this area is caused by identified trends in product development from various types of natural raw materials for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic industry and other areas of the social sphere and economy. Among the types of natural raw materials, an important place is occupied by raw materials with a wide range of biological effects, including chaga birch fungus. The development of the knowledge base in the field of engaging chaga in various spheres of the social sphere and economy is based on system analysis and patent search.
Keywords: knowledge base, birch mushroom, intellectual property, forest complex, non-timber forest resources, patent, intellectual property, chaga
the necessity of accelerated development of competitive in the Russian and foreign markets of domestic machines and equipment for the prevention and suppression of forest fires is shown. The system analysis of technologies, machines and equipment for prevention and suppression of forest fires is carried out on the basis of the extended patent information search. Special attention is paid to technologies, machines and equipment that provide cutting of trees and bushes in the continuous movement of basic forest tractors. The knowledge base in the field of technologies, machines and equipment for removal of trees and bushes is formed. It is suggested that the prospects of their use in the systems of machines for the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The equipment of such machines can be included in the set of multifunctional equipment for a forest tractor. The technological and technical solutions developed by the authors for the variants of technologies of cutting trees and bushes with the continuous movement of basic forest tractors, machines and elements of their structures for such technologies are presented
Keywords: knowledge base, tree and shrub vegetation, forest fires, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
To form a knowledge base, a systematic analysis of patentable technologies and equipment for handling spent nuclear fuel was carried out. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases were formed regarding the technology and equipment objects being improved or replaced, taking into account their role in the end-to-end technologies and related operations of these processes. The research results showed the effectiveness of the formation of a knowledge base and its use for the synthesis of new intellectual property. As a result of the work done, new technical solutions were found regarding the design of containers for transporting and storing spent nuclear fuel from nodular cast iron. The significance of the solutions found is confirmed by obtaining patents for invention in their respect.
Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, patent, transportation and storage, transport and packaging containers
An analysis of the use of modern technologies based on the use of physical phenomena, namely, vacuum and microwave effects in the dehydration of food products, is given. On the basis of generalization and analysis of studies of domestic and foreign scientists it was shown that these technologies are promising for such plant raw materials as fruits and vegetables, and their effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the raw materials being enriched
Keywords: vacuum, microwave exposure, dehydration of food, drying
A system analysis of technologies and equipment for logging work was carried out in order to synthesize new solutions. It is based on the original functional and technological analysis of objects of logging technologies and equipment, worked out on a number of basic operations of timber industry. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases are being formed on technologies and equipment that are being improved or replaced, their role in the end-to-end technologies of timber production and related operations of these processes is taken into account. It is shown that it is advisable to harvest industrial wood with harvesters and forwarders during their cyclical work, to conduct forestry operations, to prevent and extinguish forest fires during the continuous movement of forest machines. As a result of the analysis, technical solutions were found for the technology of work and the structural elements of the multifunctional forest machine protected by patents.
Keywords: knowledge bases, logging work, methodology, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
Parameters of logging machines are determined by the characteristics of the subject of labour, in particular the size of trees. In stands the sizes of trees vary and have stochastic character. This leads to the difficulty of determining the design tree for the felling machine or calculating the weight of the wood moved by the transport machine. The problem is complicated by the fact that the design of the forest machine should ensure the efficiency of work in different stands. The solution of the problem of determining the calculated characteristics of the subject of labour (characteristics that determine the values of external forces acting on the forest machine) can be based on the analysis of regularities in the structure of stands by thickness. The purpose of this study is to describe a method of constructing stochastic models of the structure of the stand by thickness in the design of forest machines and an example of its application. The proposed method makes it possible to form a stochastic model of the tree stand structure by thickness for the forest area under study and covers procedures from the collection of initial data to the generation of the tree diameter algorithm. Generation algorithms obtained by the method can be used in the development of simulation models for computer experiments aimed at calculating the optimal parameters of forest machines.
Keywords: forest machines designing, stochastic simulation, stand structure by thickness, tree diameter distribution, simulation modeling, computational experiment on the computer
when analyzing container designs for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel, a tendency is revealed to improve them using the innovative potential of modern achievements in science and technology. The modernized design of the container is proposed, which includes a molded body with an internal volume under the cover. In the wall of the case, a neutron-protective barrier is poured from the material with a melting point higher than the melting point of the shell material and a thermal conductivity coefficient not less than that of the cast housing material. The barrier prevents the free passage of neutrons in the radial directions
Keywords: nuclear energy, container, spent nuclear fuel, transportation and storage
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the operational characteristics of individual trees in the regions of the Northern economic area of the Russian Federation (NEA). On the basis of the estimation, the weighted average structure of the stand is obtained in terms of thickness for NEA. This made it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility of creating a forest machine with parameters that allow it to be used effectively in all regions of the NEA.
Keywords: forest resources, structure of the tree stand in thickness, Northern economic region
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the average performance characteristics of the timber stands of the regions of the Northern economic area (NEA). The work presents the distributions for the NEA regions: the total timber resources, the timber resources of ripe and over-mature plantations in operational forests, the volume of logging, and the volume of the cut-off area and the species composition of stand. Based on the evaluation of the performance characteristics of timber stands and individual trees, the weighted average characteristics of the model stand for NEA were calculated. The obtained results of a comparative assessment of forest resources can be used in forecasting the productivity and operating costs of forest harvesting machines operating in the conditions of NEA forests.
Keywords: timber resources, timber stock, estimated cutting area, volume of logging, average timber stand, volume of stem, species composition of stand, model stand
Classification of heuristic methods for finding new solutions is presented. The classification is based on the hierarchical relationship of heuristic methods, based on their practical use. According to the proposed classification, heuristic methods are divided into three groups: methodological, systematic and empirical.
Keywords: classification, heuristic method, invention, hierarchy, interconnection
The solution of the problem of justifying the operating modes and the acquisition of equipment used in the technological processes of timber industry is proposed to be implemented using the described methodology. The methodology is based on probabilistic-statistical analysis of technological processes and their representation as queuing systems.
Keywords: technological network, technological process, technological line, complex, queuing theory, queuing system, timber industry complex
the development of a network of logging roads and increasing the efficiency of its functioning is the most important factor in increasing the economic accessibility of forest resources and intensifying forest management in the regions of the European North of Russia. Substantial development of the network of forest roads is necessary to increase the availability of forests for continuous and selective cutting, thinning, reforestation. It is also necessary to improve the efficiency of the operation of logging road trains while exporting forests, to increase the degree of development of the allowable cutting area, to increase the level of forest fire safety of forests, and to prevent and extinguish forest fires.
Keywords: availability of forest resources, logging roads, timber road truck, local stone materials, road construction
The developed calculation dependencies for determining the log truck movement indicators during non-steady and steady motion in different modes make it possible to solve technical-economic tasks with adequate accuracy and certainty during planning and optimization of wood transportation. During two-stage timber hauling a log truck based on MAZ-6312B9 has advantages in exploitation and technical-economic indicators in comparison with a log truck based on Scania R-420. There are opportunities for a rapid increase of passing ability of a log truck while using an active trailer. This provides the work of a complete log truck on a forest road, and also there is a possibility to eliminate two-stage timber hauling, with rise of efficiency and technical-economic indicators
Keywords: wood transport, optimization, log trucks, motion simulation, efficiency
One of the problems with exploitation of log trucks is damage to equipment during the process of transportation of wood material and during loading-unloading operations. The authors of the paper suggest equipping a log truck with an innovative protective butting device in order to increase reliability and work efficiency of the hydraulic manipulator. This device will allow aligning the sawn wood ends of wood products, and thus it will allow excluding a chance of protruding of sawn wood ends at an inadmissible scale which prevents forming a neighboring pack of wood products. The device will also allow excluding mechanical damages of a hydraulic manipulator by sawn wood ends of wood products being laid on a load platform. This will increase its reliability and will reduce the expenses on repair works.
Keywords: log truck, hydraulic manipulator, modernization, reliability, safety