The purpose of this study is to perform a classification to form a knowledge base in the field of harvesting and use in industry and in the social sphere of one of the valuable types of non-wood forest resources-tree greens. Such knowledge base is necessary for synthesis of new progressive processes, machines and mechanisms for harvesting and use of wood greens. The basis of the classification formation is based on the analysis of technological and technical solutions based on scientific and technical search, given in inventions and utility models patented in 2010-2019 in the Russian Federation. As a result of researches the main directions of patenting of developments in the field of preparation and use of wood greens are classified.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
Justification of the parameters and compiling of the forest machine chassis can not be performed without determining the weight of the load. The weight of the load depends on the wood density. The wood density within the growing tree is heterogeneous. The aim of this study is to develop mathematical models to calculate the average density of the tree trunk area depending on its location in the trunk. The research is based on the construction of approximating dependences of changes in the average wood density in the longitudinal direction of the trunk by minimum deviation method. The obtained mathematical models establish the relationship of density changes in the longitudinal direction of the trunk for four forest-forming species of the Republic of Karelia: pine, spruce, birch and aspen.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
In the course of the system analysis of scientific and technical information, including patents, it has been established that currently the forestry sector is actively patenting technical and technological solutions for basic operations, but not enough attention is paid to building knowledge bases in the field of technologies and equipment for non-timber forest resources. The formation of databases in this area is caused by identified trends in product development from various types of natural raw materials for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic industry and other areas of the social sphere and economy. Among the types of natural raw materials, an important place is occupied by raw materials with a wide range of biological effects, including chaga birch fungus. The development of the knowledge base in the field of engaging chaga in various spheres of the social sphere and economy is based on system analysis and patent search.
Keywords: knowledge base, birch mushroom, intellectual property, forest complex, non-timber forest resources, patent, intellectual property, chaga
Parameters of logging machines are determined by the characteristics of the subject of labour, in particular the size of trees. In stands the sizes of trees vary and have stochastic character. This leads to the difficulty of determining the design tree for the felling machine or calculating the weight of the wood moved by the transport machine. The problem is complicated by the fact that the design of the forest machine should ensure the efficiency of work in different stands. The solution of the problem of determining the calculated characteristics of the subject of labour (characteristics that determine the values of external forces acting on the forest machine) can be based on the analysis of regularities in the structure of stands by thickness. The purpose of this study is to describe a method of constructing stochastic models of the structure of the stand by thickness in the design of forest machines and an example of its application. The proposed method makes it possible to form a stochastic model of the tree stand structure by thickness for the forest area under study and covers procedures from the collection of initial data to the generation of the tree diameter algorithm. Generation algorithms obtained by the method can be used in the development of simulation models for computer experiments aimed at calculating the optimal parameters of forest machines.
Keywords: forest machines designing, stochastic simulation, stand structure by thickness, tree diameter distribution, simulation modeling, computational experiment on the computer
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the operational characteristics of individual trees in the regions of the Northern economic area of the Russian Federation (NEA). On the basis of the estimation, the weighted average structure of the stand is obtained in terms of thickness for NEA. This made it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility of creating a forest machine with parameters that allow it to be used effectively in all regions of the NEA.
Keywords: forest resources, structure of the tree stand in thickness, Northern economic region
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the average performance characteristics of the timber stands of the regions of the Northern economic area (NEA). The work presents the distributions for the NEA regions: the total timber resources, the timber resources of ripe and over-mature plantations in operational forests, the volume of logging, and the volume of the cut-off area and the species composition of stand. Based on the evaluation of the performance characteristics of timber stands and individual trees, the weighted average characteristics of the model stand for NEA were calculated. The obtained results of a comparative assessment of forest resources can be used in forecasting the productivity and operating costs of forest harvesting machines operating in the conditions of NEA forests.
Keywords: timber resources, timber stock, estimated cutting area, volume of logging, average timber stand, volume of stem, species composition of stand, model stand
Classification of heuristic methods for finding new solutions is presented. The classification is based on the hierarchical relationship of heuristic methods, based on their practical use. According to the proposed classification, heuristic methods are divided into three groups: methodological, systematic and empirical.
Keywords: classification, heuristic method, invention, hierarchy, interconnection
The solution of the problem of justifying the operating modes and the acquisition of equipment used in the technological processes of timber industry is proposed to be implemented using the described methodology. The methodology is based on probabilistic-statistical analysis of technological processes and their representation as queuing systems.
Keywords: technological network, technological process, technological line, complex, queuing theory, queuing system, timber industry complex
The article focuses on the description structuring of manufacturing process and technological process in the forest industry in the context of a unified system for forest harvesting and processing of tree biomass. An approach to the description of the processes in the timber industry complex is proposed. It is based on the concept of "technological network." Definitions of a term and related terms with him are proposed in the article.
Keywords: Terminology, timber industry, perforated technological process, technological network of timber production, manufacturing network
Effectiveness of wood firm depends up supporting of optimal balance of production and consumption of wood biomass. The problem solution demands optimization of order portfolio in the context of forest operators and woodmongers as a consistent system of the harvesting and processing of wood. The article shows the formulation of this problem in the light of logging contractors and woodworking enterprises.
Keywords: technological network, optimization of order portfolio, optimal bucking, perforated technological process, sustainable wood use
Analysis findings of possibility of establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in the Republic of Karelia can be found in the article. The advantages of production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in comparison with paper pulp production are developed in the article. A brief analysis of Russian market of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp can be found in the article. Statement of reasons of establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in the Republic of Karelia can be found in the article too. The establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp could help to solve a problem of deciduous trees processing which is in Republic of Karelia.
Keywords: Bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp, paper pulp, cardboard, paper, pulp, processing, deciduous trees, quaking asp, birch
Scientific findings of developing of patentable products in the area of reforestation work are presented in the article. Functional and technological synthesis is used for developing of patentable products. A development matrix of apparatuses for hand planting of forestry crops is developed in virtue of generalizations of patent databases. A fragment of this matrix is described in the article. Route forward of apparatuses for hand planting of forestry crops are determined in terms of the matrix. The scientific findings are four patentable products which are described with the help of text of claims.
Keywords: Functional and technological analysis, reforestation work, manual equipment for planting of forest crops, seedlings, planting stock
New technology using timber feller-skidder is proposed in the article. A feller-skidder fells trees which oriented tops towards upper timber landing. Then the feller-skidder picks fell trees and cuts its tops. After that it skids them for tops to upper timber landing. The new technology allows to improve performance logging and to concentrate logging residues. Improvement of performance is because of capacity increase in volume of tree batch. A research did in terms of functional-technological method.
Keywords: Logging, logging waste, feller-skidder, tree felling, skidding
The article is devoted to the problem of improving the efficiency of removal of trees and shrubs (cutting and milling) in a continuous movement of forest machines. Brush cutters with active and passive working elements, as well as specialized machines are used for cutting and milling trees and shrubs. These machines have a disadvantage. It is a low reliability in operation. A general layout scheme of machines for removal of trees and shrubs is offered in the article which allows minimizing this problem. The machine has two working bodies: a basic and an additional. The basic working body is for cutting trees and shrubs. The additional working body is for milling stumps and roots and also for mixing pieces of wood with soil.
Keywords: Through workflow, timber industry, trees and shrubs, brush cutter, mower, machine for cutting trees and shrubs
There is an important task to improve timber complex. It is a search of efficient using wood. The research results of energy reserves capacity running on a regularized round timber production technological line for wood construction are given in the article. The research suggests that 40 – 45 percent wood resources using on regularized round timber production technological lines are waste. This capacity can use for manufacturing different energy products: firewood, chip fuel, fuel pellets, fuel briquette. The research made on the plant (limited liability company “Biogrant”) in Karelian Republic.
Keywords: Woodworking, cylindering, technological line, wood costraction, energy reserves, fuelwood, firewood, chip fuel, fuel pellets, briquette