The article is devoted to the problem of theoretical research and development of perovskite-based solar cells to optimize their design and increase efficiency. The paper presents a numerical simulation of the transfer and accumulation of charge carriers in the planar p – i – n heterostructure of a solar cell. The simulation is based on a stationary physico-topological model based on the diffusion-drift system of semiconductor equations. The efficiency of solar cells for different perovskite film thickness was obtained. It has been established that the maximum efficiency of the optimized design of a solar cell is about 27% with a perovskite film thickness of 500-700 nm and a defect concentration in it of the order of 1012 cm-3.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, solar cell, perovskite, film thickness, defect concentration, current-voltage characteristic
Numerical modeling of the temperature distribution during heating (annealing) by a pulsed Nd: YAG laser of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) film on the surface of an AZO glass substrate is carried out. The simulation was performed on the basis of a numerical solution of the heat equation in the Matlab program to determine the energy density of the laser radiation necessary for crystallization of the a-Si film. For a wavelength of 1064 nm, it was obtained that the temperature at the surface of the a-Si film reaches a maximum value at a time point of 146 ns with a laser pulse with a Gaussian time-shape. It is shown that for the crystallization of an a-Si film with a thickness of about 800 nm with laser radiation with a nanosecond pulse duration, the optimum energy density is 600-700 mJ / cm2 when the temperature across the thickness of the a-Si film corresponds to 550-1250 ° C.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, laser annealing, temperature distribution, a-Si film, solar cell
In this paper, a numerical study of the optimized body shape with minimal aerodynamic drag has been carried out. A computational experiment involves the transition from the study of a real object to the study of its mathematical model, for the study of such processes, a full-scale study of which is impossible, for some reason is difficult or expensive. The conditions for comparing the forms of bodies in a computational experiment are that they are kept constant for all bodies: the volume and shape of the working area; distances from sources, drains and centers of bodies; gas flow rates; body mass and other secondary characteristics besides just the very shape of the surface.
Keywords: aerodynamic resistance, optimized body shape, numerical simulation, computational experiment, temperature field, convective heat transfer
In the article, a numerical study of the heat sink with a change in the aggregate state of the oil is carried out. Simulation was carried out in Ansys Fluent CAD for two modes, static - with constant heating of the oil at 340K and dynamic, at which the heating temperature varied with time from 340K to 270K. Heat transfer in the event of a change in the aggregate state of a substance is widely used in cases where it is necessary to achieve the maximum efficiency of heat exchange. In this case, the energy is expended on the phase transition of the substance, for example, to evaporation from the liquid phase. The advantage of the heat-sink design described in this work is a rather high rate of heat transfer, greater resistance to various influences, including mechanical ones, which is primarily ensured by the simplicity of construction, eliminating the drawbacks of classical designs, which are cumbersome (the presence of an external cooling circuit ) and the limited rate of heat transfer.
Keywords: heat dissipation, numerical methods, aggregate state, computational experiment, heat exchange efficiency
In the article, the authors carried out a computer experiment in Ansys Fluent CAD to study the efficiency of a heat sink surface in terms of reducing the temperature of a heat-loaded source. Providing optimal thermal conditions for electronic products is one of the most important problems in the design of radio electronic equipment. Increasing the temperature of electronic products significantly reduces the reliability of their work. The work is devoted to numerical modeling of the heat sink surface efficiency of a pin radiator with an internal heat source. A conclusion is drawn about the ineffectiveness of performing a heat sink pin surface, not the entire surface is equally effective.
Keywords: thermal mode of equipment, pin heat sink, numerical methods, aerodynamic flow
Numerical physical-topological modeling is carried out to optimize the thickness of perovskite solar cells on the basis of the heterostructure TiO2 / CH3CN3PbI3-xClx / Spiro-OMeTAD. The results of the conducted studies showed that the optimum values of the thicknesses of TiO2 and CH3CN3PbI3-xClx heterostructure films, which make it possible to obtain a high coefficient of efficiency of the solar cell, lie in relatively narrow limits. The carried out researches have shown the possibility of effective use of numerical physical-topological modeling for the development of perovskite solar cells, taking into account the features of photogeneration, recombination and transport of charge carriers in real heterostructures.
Keywords: Solar cell, perovskite, titanium dioxide, heterostructure, numerical simulation.
In this work, a study was made of the efficiency of the heat sink surface of a volumetric body with an internal heat source. An electrostatic analog of the distribution of the thermal field is chosen. A model of the convective flow is proposed, under certain initial and boundary conditions, the thermal conductivity of the medium transforming into heat removal. The conclusion is made about the ineffectiveness of the heat-conducting surface in the form of whip, finned and other designs of existing heat sinks, increasing only the mass, technological complexity of manufacture, thermal resistance and temperature of the heat-loaded element.
Keywords: Temperature field, convective heat transfer, effective heat sink area, electrostatic analog, similarity theory
Theoretical studies of the temperature distribution during laser heating of the TiO2 precursor film on the FTO/glass substrate have been carried out. The simulation was performed on the basis of a numerical solution of the heat equation in the Matlab program to determine the energy density of the laser radiation necessary for crystallization of TiO2. It was shown that on the surface of the TiO2 precursor the temperature reaches a maximum value at a time point of 133 ns with the Gaussian temporal form of the laser pulse. The optimum energy density for crystallization of the TiO2 precursor film with the nanosecond pulse duration is 1.3-1.6 J/cm2, when the film thickness temperature corresponds to 400-500 °C. The obtained results of the simulation are consistent with experimental studies.
Keywords: numerical simulation, laser heating, temperature distribution, TiO2 film, solar cell
In this paper, the temperature distribution from a point source of heat under convective heat transfer is studied. The Navier-Stokes equation describing the steady two-dimensional laminar motion of a fluid is solved numerically. The distribution of the temperature field of a heat-loaded point source is obtained under appropriate boundary conditions, supplemented by the boundary conditions for the flow velocity to equal zero on the paraboloid walls by numerical integration using the control volume method.
Keywords: Radiator protrusion shape, thermal conductivity, thermal apparatus mode, the temperature of the heat source
Created single-stage model of silicon solar cell using PC1D v.5.9 program, designed to simulate the photovoltaic devices. In the process of simulation change the level of doping and thickness of the n + type layer of the front, as well as applied texturing the front surface. The influence of the doping level and the thickness of the n + type layer in the photovoltaic solar cell characteristics. It was determined that with the increase of the doping level and the thickness of the front n + -layer a decrease in the efficiency of solar cells. It was found that the use of texturing the front surface leads to an increase in efficiency and is associated with reduced reflection losses and an increase in the photocurrent.
Keywords: Silicon solar cell thickness, doping levels, texturing, current-voltage characteristic
The paper analyzed the influence of the shape and projection of its location on the surface of the heat sink on the heat source temperature. Based on the theoretical analysis, it was shown that the pins, ribs, hinges, and other projections are present on the surface of the heat sink, it does not increase the cooling surface and heat-loaded lower temperature source. These designs provide only near the side surfaces of the rapidly decreasing dipole, quadrupole, and other components of the field, which are not conducive to heat dissipation from the source, and create a circulating flow.
Keywords: radiator protrusion shape, thermal conductivity, thermal apparatus mode, the temperature of the heat source