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  • On the problem of increasing the severity of occupational injuries in machine-building enterprises of the Rostov region

    The article deals with the question of injury to the enterprise "Rostvertol" for the period from 1999 to 2010. Discusses some indicators of the status of labour conditions and safety of employees. The analysis of data on the number of injured in accidents at work by gender, age and length of service in the organization. As well as the number of injured by type of accident and by profession. Analyzed data on the number of victims for reasons that have led to an accident in the workplace. On the basis of the study there are several main reasons. Such as the unsatisfactory organization of work and production violation of labor discipline.

    Keywords: labor protection, labor conditions, injury, accident, industrial injuries, mechanical engineering enterprises mechanical contact

  • Investigation of the stress-strain state of lining of underground structures in the zones of linking

    In the article numerical simulation of the interface zone of a tunnel with a vertical barrel by the finite element method is considered. The numerical spatial model is a fragment of a rock mass with a size of 80 to 90 meters, in which the tunnel is connected by a span of 6.0 m, adjacent to the vertical trunk. The mating and trunk in the area under consideration are fixed with reinforced concrete lining 500 mm thick. A universal spatial isoparametric eight-node finite element is used to break up the model. The dimensions of the finite elements on the outer regions of the model were 2.5 - 5.0 m, on the inner - 0.25 - 0.5 m. Thus, the principle of combining dense and rarefied grids was used to reduce the amount of information describing the numerical model. The problem was solved in an elastoplastic formulation by a stepwise iteration method. As a result of calculations, all the components of the volumetric stress tensor in the finite elements of the lining and the rock mass, movement and deformation in the nodes of the finite elements were determined. With the help of the developed numerical models, a series of calculations was performed, an array of data was obtained on the stress-strain state of the lining in the zone of coupling effect, quantitative and qualitative analysis was performed. It is established that in characteristic zones of the influence of conjugations, a significant increase in the intensity of equivalent stresses is observed, which leads to a reduction in the load-bearing capacity of the lining by 2 times or more in comparison with extended sections of underground structures. To increase the efficiency of maintaining interfaces during tunnel operation, it is necessary to justify the control actions taking into account the dynamics of changes in the stress-strain state of the lining in space and time.

    Keywords: tunnel, shaft, linking, stress-strain state of the rock mass, the concrete lining

  • Assessment of the compatibility of ceramic tiles from gabbro-dolerite and moderately krasnogruda jade clay with engobe and glazed with icing

    In the work conducted studies to determine the compatibility of the developed composition of the ceramic mass with engobe and glaze. Specified temperature coefficient of linear expansion of these layers. Presents dilatometric tests of the developed formulations. Identifies the main physical and mechanical properties of facing ceramic tiles: moisture expansion, temperature resistance and permeability. Conducted optical-flexotecnica studies of the individual layers. Identify the causes a more uniform stress distribution of decorative layers. The structure designed ceramic tiles with the help of electron microscopic studies

    Keywords: ceramic mass, the engobe, glaze, temperature coefficient of linear expansion, dilatometry, pleximetry, electron microscopy, moisture expansion, temperature resistance, permeability.

  • On the problem of the use of jet grouting technology in the construction of deep underground facilities

    Jet grouting technology is gaining popularity in practice. Until recently, the main area of application was considered strengthening the bases and foundations, as well as strengthening the walls of trenches in the construction of underground parts of buildings. At the same time there are examples of the use of technology inkjet technology for advanced fixing of deep underground facilities, as well as the mouths of vertical shafts. With the help of this technology is arranged anticipatory lining, which ensures the stability of the construction of the walls and reduce the inflow of groundwater during construction. This greatly reduces the complexity and duration of construction, increased safety. For a broader introduction of jet grouting technology in the construction of deep underground facilities must be a comprehensive study of patterns of interaction with the surrounding structures grouting array of temporary and permanent support of the barrel at various stages of penetration with the influence of the construction technology, heterogeneity of rocks and other factors. This will justify the optimal parameters walling in different environments and to develop effective technological schemes of production work

    Keywords: geomechanical state geological environment, the array, evaluation, arched part, the transport tunnel spectrum, acoustic resonance inspection, prognostication, control, forecast, weakened mechanical contact

  • Stress analysis ballastless design of the top structure of railway track and railway tunnel lining

    Currently, there is a constant increase in train speeds and loads on the structure of railway track. In tunnels these loads are also transferred to the lining, and the stress-strain state of tunnel structures in the application of ballastless track and large axial loads requires further study. To carry out such a study developed a numerical model of a railway tunnel with a circular cross-section ballastless design path, including under-rail support, resilient layer and track concrete. As a result of the calculation model, the values main vertical stresses in the main tunnel structures. Found that with increasing loading of the wheel on the rail from 100 to 200 kN stress increases by an average of 50%. The distribution of stress affects the stiffness of the elastic layer. With its increasing vertical stress in the under-rail support non-linear decrease, and at the road concrete increases nonlinearly.

    Keywords: Ballastless railway track, tunnel lining, tension, ground concrete, axial load

  • The method of calculation of efficiency of thermal secondary energoresursov without changing the aggregate state industrial wastewater

    The relevance of this article stems from the situation in the energy sector. For issues of a more efficient use of the thermal capacity of industrial wastewater this article describes the method of determining the efficiency of heat utilization of industrial wastewaters produced during the implementation of thermal processes of service enterprises, as secondary energy. Conducted system analysis of the technological regime cards washing clothes in order to identify the energy potential of wastewater. Based on the analysis of the conditions of production of thermal equipment is composed of a heat balance, thermal process equipment, the methods of determining the heat capacity of industrial wastewater and the amount of saved fuel by use of this energy potential. As the calculation of the financial cost of additional heat exchanger regenerative type, the use of which allows to implement a system of heat utilization of industrial waste water as the heating fluid.

    Keywords: Energy efficiency, heat balance, energy, vapor, liquid, sewage, heat capacity.

  • Elements of geotechnical monitoring of underground constructions, enshrined concrete anchors

    There was a need for geotechnical monitoring during construction of underground facilities. The organization of monitoring control tensile forces in the concrete anchors. Comparison of experimental and calculated data, which revealed that the deviation does not exceed 19%. When using anchor embedment length limited in a large range of conditions in a rod anchor having critical internal forces. To increase the efficiency of anchors in their construction can be used in flexible elements of the anchor bolt assembly.

    Keywords: underground construction, monitoring, anchor well, tensile forces, the bearing capacity, the compliance node

  • Theoretical and experimental bases of assessment of the arched part transport tunnels using the method of acoustic resonance inspection

    The article presents the main results of theoretical and experimental research in the field of non-destructive testing and forecasting of geomechanical condition of the arched part of the transport tunnels. It has been shown that this goal can be to apply a method of acoustic resonance inspection. Methodology Research was registering the resonant response of the layered rock mass to impact mechanical excitation of an acoustic signal. Initiation and receive elastic vibrations produced in the lower layer of the breed. These technical and economic parameters allow to recommend Geophysical prediction described underground geophysical methods for wide industrial use during transport tunnels

    Keywords: geomechanical state geological environment, the array, evaluation, arched part, the transport tunnel spectrum, acoustic resonance inspection, prognostication, control, forecast, weakened mechanical contact

  • The need to carry out comprehensive monitoring of underground facilities at various stages of the life cycle

    Expressed need for a new approach to the development of underground space. The main task of complex monitoring at various stages of the life cycle of the underground facility. The description of the measuring stations to monitor the efforts of roof bolting

    Keywords: Underground space development, monitoring, vertical shaft, anchor

  • The development of effective fiber-reinforced concrete structures for underground construction

    The most promising technologies of concrete and reinforced concrete for the underground construction and transport. The studies with the inclusion of concrete and steel and polypropylene fibers. The factors affecting the strength and modulus of deformation materials. The conclusion about the need to study the effectiveness of the concrete with a combined reinforcement.

    Keywords: Concrete and underground construction, fiber, strength, modulus of deformation