The article deals with the issues related to the study of aerodynamic and energy characteristics of the two layout solutions of mechanical ventilation and air conditioning systems - with the placement of the fan before and after the heater. Based on the use of graphoanalytic method of studying the parameters of the fan in the ventilation network, the dependences determining the aerodynamic and energy characteristics of the systems in three characteristic modes of their operation - at ambient temperatures equal to the design, the average temperature of the heating period and +8 ° C are obtained. The obtained dependences indicate that the installation of the air heater after the fan allows to increase the level of energy efficiency of the system in comparison with the placement of the air heater in front of the fan in the cold period of the year under the thermally unsteady operation of the supply ventilation system.
Keywords: fan, air heater, ventilation system, air conditioning system, power, energy saving, energy efficiency, non-stationary mode, the cold period of the year, the method of imposing characteristics
The article presents the results of studies to determine the energy efficiency of the two options for the mutual placement of the fan and the air heater in the ventilation system. The traditional variant with the installation of the air heater to the fan and the layout solution with the installation of the air heater after the fan are considered. It is shown that thermodynamic processes occur in the systems under consideration, the direction and energy efficiency of which depends on the layout solution of the system. By using the method of analysis of aerodynamic efficiency of ventilation systems, it is proved that the implementation of the objective function of the system with the highest energy efficiency corresponds to the installation of the fan in front of the air heater. This option corresponds to the minimum values of the volumetric capacity of the fan and its power consumption.
Keywords: fan, air heater, ventilation system, heating and ventilation system, energy, power, energy efficiency, energy conversion, mechanical power flow, thermodynamic system
The article reveals the relationship between the concepts of "ecology", "Anthropoecology"and " architecture". The analysis of the concepts of "architecture" and "Anthropoecology", common to them, their identity, is that the object of consideration is the external environment in relation to man. It is established that the objective of Anthropoecology, in this context, is the study of human interaction with the environment, determining the conditions of its comfort and utilitarianism for humans, and the subject of architecture – the formation of the environment through the construction of buildings. The direct connection and continuity of ecology and architecture in the formation of an artificial human environment determines environmental friendliness as an essential, profound property and the mission of architecture. On the basis of comparative analysis of the concepts "Anthropoecology" and "architecture" their deep essential interrelation is established, which determines the necessity of anthropoecological approach to architectural design, as well as the transition to the integrated assessment of environmental characteristics of real estate objects.
Keywords: ecology, Anthropoecology, environmental friendliness, architecture, environment, architectural environment, architectural design, ecological characteristics of the building, energy saving, energy efficiency
In the period of sharp warming conditions can occur in which the temperature of the outer surface for some time will be below the ambient air temperature. While warmer ambient air, not in contact with the heated surface of the wall may cause condensation on the surface. The article discusses some of the exterior building envelope, in conditions of rapid warming and condensation process of moisture on the outer surface of the walls. With the help of finite difference method numerical modeling of the thermal regime of the outer surface.
Keywords: Exterior walls, non-stationary conditions, moisture condensation, winter
The article considers a method for optimizing circular ducts for ventilation and air conditioning systems. Universal dependencies are given to determine the diameters of the cross-sections of the air ducts and the air velocities in them that are technically and economically optimal. It is shown that the optimum air velocity in the section of the ventilation network does not depend on the site location relative to the fan of the system. Specific examples of determining the optimum diameters of air ducts and air velocities in them with the use of the dependences obtained are given in the technical and economic sense.
Keywords: Аir duct, aerodynamic calculation, ventilation system, air conditioning system, techno-economic optimization, optimal diameter, optimal air speed, energy saving, energy efficiency, aerodynamic efficiency
The aim of this work is determination of regularities that determine the operation parameters of the fan in a thermally non-stationary ventilation system contains a heater located along the air flow after the fan. It is established that the ventilation system, containing the heater, has two characteristics aerodynamic resistance related to the volumetric air flow at the sections of the network before and after the heater. It is proved that when using the superposition method, P-L characteristics to determine the parameters of the fan in the system, you must apply the P-L characteristic of the network is related to the volumetric air flow to the heater. The obtained dependences determine the parameters of the fan depending on its aerodynamic characteristics and the location of the heater in the system.
Keywords: the ventilation system is in a thermally transient mode, fan, heater, energy efficiency, energy conservation
With the aim of obtaining objective data about the energy potential of the air flow in the ventilation system proposed to use the parameter "local mechanical power flow". The formulas describing the change of this parameter in different parts of the ventilation system. Describes the author's method of graphic representation of the processes of change of flow parameters in the coordinate axes L - Pn, allowing enough just to determine the change in local mechanical power on isothermal and non-isothermal sections of the ventilation system.
Keywords: ventilation system, fan, mechanical power, heat exchanger, energy efficiency, energy conservation
The results of the analysis of the energy efficiency of water heating's accession to the heat network. Introduced the concept of the coefficient of the hydropower efficiency. Discusses the features of its calculation in the dependent scheme of attaching the water heating system of consumers to the heat network and the independent circuit.
Keywords: Heat supply network, individual heating unit, water heating system, energy efficiency, hydropower efficiency ratio