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  • Peculiarities and problems of street lighting design based on automated lighting control systems

    The article analyses the current state of automated control systems for street lighting: advantages and disadvantages, problems faced by manufacturers and operators of such systems. The article describes the basic principles of automated control systems, such as the use of motion sensors, light sensors and communication technology to optimise the operation of street lighting. The article also discusses the features and problems of designing street lighting based on automated lighting control systems, and possible problems associated with their implementation and operation.

    Keywords: lighting control, digital twin, automation, sensor, light sources, LED lighting fixture

  • Development of an Optical Cell of Collecting and Processing Video Information for Earth Remote Sensing

    As the space industry accelerates the trend to reduce development and production costs and simplify the use of space hardware, small spacecraft, including CubeSats, have become popular representatives of this trend. Over the last decade, the development, production and operation of small spacecraft has become in demand because of a number of advantages: simplicity of design, short design and production times, and reduced development costs. The main problem in the design of CubeSats is their miniaturisation. This paper presents the results of the development of the optical cell of collecting and processing video information for remote sensing systems of the CubeSat 3U format satellite, with the aim of obtaining the maximum possible image characteristics, taking into account the strict physical limitations of the CubeSat unit. In the course of the work, using computer-aided design systems Altium Designer and Creo Parametric, the structural diagram, electrical circuit diagram, topology, 3D model, as well as the design of the housing of the cell of collection and processing of video information were developed. PCB size: 90x90 mm, PCB thickness: 1.9 mm, number of PCB layers: 10, accuracy class: 5, cell height: 20 mm, cell weight: 110 grams.

    Keywords: space hardware, Earth remote sensing, small spacecraft, nanosatellite, printed circuit board, small satellite development trend, printed circuit board topology, CubeSat

  • An integrated approach to optimizing the provision of resources in critical conditions: from linear models to dynamic modeling

    The article is devoted to the problem of optimizing the provision of resources in organizational systems, taking into account the factors of an aggressive external environment. The main task is to develop a model that will reduce costs when providing resources under various criteria and restrictions. The author proposes to use mathematical modeling to solve this problem. It examines various modeling and optimization approaches, including the use of linear and nonlinear functions, consideration of time and other parameters such as time, weather and possible risk. The article also discusses specific models of the external environment that can be used when calculating the effectiveness of the “Resource Provision - External Environment” system. In conclusion, the author suggests that the proposed approaches will help improve understanding of optimization processes and application of models in real-world settings.

    Keywords: providing resources, mathematical modeling, optimization, risk management, organizational systems, external environment.

  • Evaluation of radio signal coverage in LTE and GSM standards under equivalent equipment placement conditions

    Equipping roads with communications is complicated by the almost complete lack of roadside infrastructure, including power lines, as well as difficult terrain. When emergencies occur on this kind of country roads, residents are forced to seek help from nearby settlements that are well-connected. Therefore, providing suburban routes with communications is a key social task. Using an existing base station as an example, this article calculates the attenuation and propagation range of a radio signal for LTE technology and GSM technology, provides a comparative analysis, and uses methods of mathematical modeling and system analysis.

    Keywords: LTE, GSM, Okumura-Hata model, Lee model, Longley-Rice model

  • Pulse control of electromagnetic drives

    The article proposes a variant of an electromagnetic drive for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle for monitoring power facilities and develops calculation ratios that determine its electromechanical and dynamic processes. The structure and main characteristics of the pulse drive control have been developed. The conducted research can be used in the implementation of the steering drive project of a modern unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Keywords: electromagnetic drive, pulse control, multipolar pulse width modulation, block diagram, magnetic induction, moment, constant, pulse element, control current, inertia

  • Investigation of the properties of metals during impact indentation using neural network analysis

    Indentation is a universal and practical method for obtaining material characteristics, especially when it is impossible or difficult to expose the material to other measuring methods. Experimental data on the mechanical properties of various types of materials were obtained using the shock loading unit. A mathematical model based on the finite element method was used to verify the experimental results. The article considers the solution of the problem of classification of neural metals with different mechanical properties. As part of the work, an artificial neural network has been created that allows the distribution of materials into selected groups. It is determined that a significant advantage of using neural networks is the ability to process experimental data and identify complex nonlinear dependencies, which makes them in demand in tasks related to the study of material properties.

    Keywords: impact indentation, neural network, task of classification, artificial intelligence, dynamic indentation, non-destructive testing.

  • Optimal cutting of rolled metal in the context of two-dimensional design of bar structures

    Bar structures are widespread in construction due to their economy, freedom of design shapes and sizes. As a result, automation of design and calculation of such structures is an urgent task. As part of the study, the task of developing a software module that generates a map of optimal cutting of rolled metal based on the results of calculations of rod structures has been implemented. The algorithm under consideration takes into account such features of the cutting optimization problem as taking into account the width of the blade, the possibility of using half the size of the rolled product, support for optimization of several sections, and welding of parts in case the length of the workpiece is exceeded. The software module is developed using JavaScript and C# languages. The ability to automatically generate cutting maps based on the results of optimization of rod structures increases the efficiency of designing building structures.

    Keywords: Design in construction, bar structure, computing system, web development, design in construction, rod structure, computer system, web development, optimal cutting, rolled metal, cutting map

  • Analysis of standard models of titanium oxide-based memristors for use in artificial intelligence systems

    The article discusses standard models of titanium dioxide-based memristors. A memristor is similar to a memory resistor and demonstrates a nonlinear resistance characteristic in which the charge parameter is a state variable. They can be used to create new types of electronic devices with high energy efficiency and performance, as well as to create machines that can learn and adapt to changing environmental conditions and in many practical applications: data storage memory (binary and multilevel), switches in logical electronic circuits, plastic components in neuromorphic artificial systems intelligence based on nanoelectronic components. It has been shown that when voltage is applied to charged ions, they begin to drift, and the boundary between the two regions shifts. When a sinusoidal alternating voltage of a given frequency is applied to the memristor, the shape of the volt-ampere characteristic (VAC) resembles a Lissajous diagram centered at the origin.

    Keywords: memristor, model, voltage characteristic, nonlinearity

  • Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of software tools for splitting videos into frames using the example of the field of road surface quality assessment

    Roads occupy an important place in the life of almost every person. The quality of the coating is the most significant characteristic of the roadway. To evaluate it, there are many systems, among which there are those that analyze the road surface using video information streams. In turn, the video is divided into frames, and the images are used to directly assess the road quality. Splitting video into frames in such systems works based on special software tools. To understand how effective a particular software is, a detailed analysis is needed. In this article, OpenCV, MoviePy and FFMpeg are selected as software tools for analysis. The research material is a two-minute video of the road surface with a frame rate 29.97 frames/s and mp4 format. The average time to get one frame from a video is used as an efficiency indicator. For each of the three software tools, 5 different experiments were conducted in which the frame size in pixels was consistently increased by 2 times: 40000, 80000, 160000, 320000, 640000. Each program has a linear dependence of O(n) average frame retrieving time on resolution, however, FFMpeg has the lowest absolute time indicators, as well as the lowest growth rate of the function, therefore it is the most effective tool compared to the others (OpenCV, MoviePy).

    Keywords: comparison, analysis, effectiveness, software tool, library, program, video splitting, frame size, resolution, road surface

  • Overview of energy storage interconnection topologies and its control methods

    Currently one of the promising trends in the global energy sector is the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) into the existing grid. The use of RES can be favourable in autonomous power systems where fuel costs are high. However the stochastic nature of power generation creates a number of difficulties in maintaining the power balance. To solve this problem, it is proposed to connect a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of a battery and a supercapacitor to the load busbars. The efficiency of such HESS depends mainly on the way of its connection to the grid and the choice of control method. The article gives an overview of the existing mechanisms for controlling the power consumption of HESS.

    Keywords: Renewable energy, hybrid electricity storage, power converter topology, electricity storage control strategy

  • Calculation of spatial filtration of water to a horizontal drain of finite length in a homogeneous stream

    When studying the problems of water filtration to a single horizontal imperfect drain of finite length, in a system of interacting horizontal imperfect drains, it is necessary to consider spatial (three-dimensional) filtration problems. Unlike flat (two-dimensional) problems, spatial filtering has been studied in less detail, since it is difficult to obtain rigorous solutions to their problems.

    Keywords: water supply facilities, filtration, equipotentials, drainage, borehole, pressure reservoir, drain, pressure, inflow, reservoir, watercourse

  • Automated control system for the drying process of ceramic bricks

    The work is devoted to an urgent problem - the development of automated process control systems for the production of bricks with improved characteristics. The purpose of the article is to define and systematize the tasks of automation of brick production control systems, to develop both an algorithm for managing brick production and a generalized structure of automated control systems for brick production, and the tasks of the work are: optimization of control automation levels that determine the generalized structure of automated control systems for brick production, determination of information collection subsystems corresponding to the stages of brick production, and development of their structures, the choice of basic measurement tools for information collection subsystems. The results of the work are: systematization of requirements for modern automated process control systems, development of an algorithm for controlling technological processes and a generalized structural scheme of automated process control systems for brick production, development of information collection subsystems for the developed automated process control system, development of the structure of a local automated process control system in brick production - brick drying. The developed technical solutions can be recommended for control automation in various industries.

    Keywords: brick production, technological process, drying, firing, control algorithm, automated control system, structural scheme, information collection subsystem, single-channel circuit, multi-channel circuit, measuring circuit, four-arm bridge circuit

  • Study of differences in fire regulations between Russia and China in the design of gas distribution pipelines

    The article considers the requirements of regulatory documents to ensure fire safety during construction and operation of gas distribution pipelines in Russia and China. The different approach to fire risk reduction in the two countries is revealed: more specific and stringent requirements in China and general requirements related to fire hazardous facilities in Russia.

    Keywords: fire risks, fire regulations, natural gas combustion, causes of natural gas fires, natural gas transportation, fire safety

  • Automatic text summarization: overview of algorithms and approaches to quality assessment

    The paper presents an overview of the task of automatic text summarization. The formulation of the problem of automatic text summarization is carried out. The classification of algorithms for automatic text summarization by the type of the resulting summary and by the approach to solving the problem is carried out. Some existing problems in the field of automatic text summarization and disadvantages of certain classes of algorithms are described. The concepts of quality and information completeness of the summary are defined. The most popular approaches to the assessment of the information completeness of the summary and their classification in accordance with the methodology used are considered. The metrics of the ROUGE family are considered in relation to the task of automatic text summarization. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the information completeness of the summary using such metrics of information proximity as the Kulback-Leibler divergence, the Jensen-Shannon divergence and the cosine distance (similarity). The metrics mentioned above can be applied to the text vector representations of the initial text and summary. The text vector representation in question can be performed using such methods like frequency vectorization, TF-IDF, static vectorizers and so on.

    Keywords: automatic summarization, summary, information completeness, ROUGE, vectorization, TF-IDF, static vectorizer, Kullback-Leibler divergence, Jensen-Shannon divergence, cosine distance

  • Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the Kuznetsovsky tunnel under reconstruction

    The large-scale development of Russia's lands led to the creation of a railroad network. Along with the laying of the railroad, the entire transportation infrastructure, such as bridges, tunnels and overpasses, was erected. Many structures are already more than 100 years old. The structures are deteriorating and approaching the end of their life cycle. It is therefore necessary to reconstruct or dismantle these structures. Due to the increased freight traffic between China, Russia and Western Europe, it is necessary to reconstruct all tunnels on the BAM. This paper presents one of the tunnel reconstruction options and investigates by mathematical modeling the stress-strain state of the system "array-construction" by which the tunnel can be reconstructed.

    Keywords: mathematical modeling, stress-strain state, railway tunnel, reconstruction, finite element method, drilling and blasting, mechanized tunneling, mining machine, displacements, Baikal-Amur Mainline