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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Prospects and advantages of construing multi-storey wooden buildings

    Wood as a building material has ancient roots and a long history of use. With the development of technology and the desire to live in better environmental conditions, interest in using wood to construct multi-story buildings is growing. This article is devoted to the prospects for the development of wooden multi-story buildings in Russia, in particular with the use of CLT panels, the popularity of which is growing all over the world. Comparative, statistical and logical analyzes were used as research methods. The article discusses modern methods and technologies for the construction of multi-story wooden buildings, including their advantages in terms of ecology, energy efficiency and design, conducts a comparative analysis of buildings made of reinforced concrete and CLT panels, and proposes a technological scheme for the reconstruction of buildings using CLT panels, including adding additional floors. Challenges and prospects for further development of this technology are highlighted, strategic solutions are proposed to reduce the cost of CLT panels

    Keywords: clt-panels, wood construction, wooden structures, reconstruction, renovation, high-rise wooden construction

  • Simulation of the design activity diversification of innovative enterprise

    The article discusses the features and prospects of implementing distributed management of critical urban infrastructure facilities based on the principles of autonomy. Based on the analysis, the main technologies, directions of development and features of energy transfer in an urban environment are highlighted, contributing to the introduction of distributed management of urban infrastructure facilities. The study focuses on the analysis of the distributed structure of integrated security of critical urban infrastructure facilities and the development of general principles of distributed management of critical infrastructure facilities using the «Autonomous Building» technology. t is shown that the reliable and safe functioning of critical infrastructure facilities in the city is ensured through the synthesis of special technical systems for complex protection of the facility from major security threats based on the combined use of elements of life support and safety systems. At the same time, technical life support systems for autonomous objects of critical infrastructure of the city are built on the basis of the combined use of autonomous energy sources, including non-renewable energy sources, on the principles of joint operation of electric and static power converters, storage, frequency regulation and energy conversion, and technical safety systems of autonomous objects are built using combined optical and electronic means event detection and recognition with the ability to control the full spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.

    Keywords: distributed management, technology, energy, energy transfer, urban infrastructure, critical facility, electrification, decentralization, automation, autonomy

  • Using the capabilities of GPUs for mathematical calculations

    The present paper examines the actual problem of using graphics processing units (GPUs) in computing processes that are traditionally performed on central processing units (CPUs). With the development of technology and the advent of specialized architectures and libraries, GPUs have become indispensable in areas requiring intensive computing. The article examines in detail the advantages of using GPUs compared to traditional CPUs, justifying this with their ability to process in parallel and high throughput, which makes them an ideal tool for working with large amounts of data.are accidents caused by violations of rules and regulations at work sites, among them cases related to non-compliance with the rules of wearing protective helmets. The article examines methods and algorithms for recognizing protective helmets and helmets, and assesses their effectiveness.

    Keywords: graphics processors, GPU, CUDA, OpenCL, cuBLAS, CL Blast, rocBLAS, parallel data processing, mathematical calculations, code optimization, memory management, machine learning, scientific research

  • Construction waste: sources, classification, disposal methods

    The article deals with the problem of education and management of construction waste. The data on the increase in construction volumes and, as a result, an increase in the amount of waste in Russia are presented. The main sources and types of construction waste are analyzed, their classification according to the degree of danger. Traditional and modern methods of waste disposal, such as burial, recycling, incineration, are discussed. The conclusion is made about the need to improve environmental culture in the construction industry and improve waste management legislation.

    Keywords: construction waste, construction debris, waste disposal, recycling, environmental culture, waste legislation

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Nonlinear regression model of functioning mining and metallurgical company

    The paper describes a multifactorial nonlinear regression model of revenue dynamics of the mining and metallurgical company Severstal, based on retrospective information for 2009-2021. Production volumes by type were used as independent variables: hot-rolled and cold-rolled sheet, galvanized sheet and sheet with other metal coating, rolled products, large diameter pipes, other pipe products and profiles. The criteria of multiple definition and Fisher, as well as the average absolute approximation error, were used as criteria for the adequacy of the model. A model competition was held to select the best regression dependence. As a result, a model is constructed containing inverse transformations of two independent variables in the right part.

    Keywords: regression model, least squares method, adequacy criteria, mining and metallurgical company, revenue, model competition

  • Pulse control of electromagnetic drives

    The article proposes a variant of an electromagnetic drive for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle for monitoring power facilities and develops calculation ratios that determine its electromechanical and dynamic processes. The structure and main characteristics of the pulse drive control have been developed. The conducted research can be used in the implementation of the steering drive project of a modern unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Keywords: electromagnetic drive, pulse control, multipolar pulse width modulation, block diagram, magnetic induction, moment, constant, pulse element, control current, inertia

  • Development of a tool for visualizing data on site user activity

    One of the most important points in increasing the conversion component of a web resource is identifying the most attractive places for the site user. To identify these locations, a site user activity data visualization tool was created that provides a visual representation of each user action on a site page.

    Keywords: heat map, site, oculograph, fixation, priority area

  • Programming the robot controller to implement the technological process of laser cutting

    Stepper motors are often used in automated laser cutting systems. The control circuit of a stepper motor requires a special electronic device - a driver, which receives logical signals as input and changes the current in the motor windings to provide motion parameters. This research study evaluated stepper motor drivers to determine the feasibility of their use - PLDS880, OSM-42RA, OSM-88RA. To control the system, software code was written, which was connected to the controller via a link board. With each driver, in different modes, optimal parameters were selected (initial speed, final speed and acceleration), that is, the movement of the carriage without stalling for ten passes with a minimum travel time. The results of the experiments are presented in the form of tables.

    Keywords: laser, laser cutting, automation, technological process, stepper motor, performance, driver, controller, control circuit, optimal parameters

  • Forecasting flood inundations on the rivers of Siberia using the example of forecasting the water level in the Iya River (Eastern Siberia) based on a multifactor regression model

    In the work, based on the previously constructed multifactor dynamic regression model of water level in the Iya River (Eastern Siberia), the authors forecast this indicator for June 2023 in three options: pessimistic, optimistic and neutral (base). A comparison of the forecasting results with the actual value of the water level confirmed the high adequacy of the model and good prospects for its future successful use to solve a wide range of applied and practical problems.

    Keywords: regression model, river water level, lag time, seasonal variable, forecast, adequacy, criteria

  • Theoretical justification of examination mechanisms using expert assessment methods to analyze the vulnerability of an important government facility

    The article discusses issues of theoretical substantiation of examination mechanisms using expert assessment methods to analyze the vulnerability of an important government facility. The article discusses the theoretical justification of the mechanisms of development examination for two cases. The first is taking into account the interest of experts in the results of the examination, when experts strive for a minimum discrepancy between their true assessment and the resulting expert assessment of the project. In the second case, they show interest in increasing their rating. For both cases, we define the objective functions of the experts and find the conditions for the existence of a Nash equilibrium situation.

    Keywords: comprehensive security, methods, models, security forces, violators, important government facilities, expert assessment methods, vulnerability analysis

  • An artificial intelligence model to support management decisions to increase the efficiency of preventive measures to prevent fire

    The proposed work considers two types of neural network models for describing fire risks depending on the size of the population and preventive measures. Neural network models make it possible to consider fire risks integrally, taking into account the type of municipality or separately for each of the three existing types. Based on these models, a response surface for fire risks - population and prevention has been implemented, which allows you to assess the magnitude of risks based on input data to optimize decisions made. For a given value of the standard risk, the dependence of optimal prevention was obtained depending on the number of deposits in the municipality, which makes it possible to guarantee fire risks less than or equal to the standard indicators. The article analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of preventive measures using neural networks. The input data for training the neural network includes fire data collected in Vietnam and Russia (population, number of fires, number of deaths, number of preventive measures). Based on these indicators, the effectiveness of preventive measures is predicted. Based on the forecasting results, decisions can be made to ensure fire safety in the state. The results obtained indicate the possibility of predicting the absolute value of the effectiveness of preventive work based on quantitative and categorical variables. A relatively large forecast error is associated, on the one hand, with the need to take into account a larger number of input parameters, and on the other hand, with the need to increase the size of the neural network training base. After refining the model, the results obtained allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive measures for provinces and cities.

    Keywords: fire safety, preventive measures, neural network, management decision support, prediction model

  • Technical science. Building and architecture

  • Reinforcement with composite materials to protect the reinforced concrete slab–column from pushing through the node

    Reinforced concrete flat slabs continue to be one of the most popular floor systems due to the speed of construction and their inherent flexibility in the layout of the premises. However, flat, non-rigid floors are subject to brittle fracture at the junction of the slab and column, which can spread and lead to the progressive collapse of a larger segment of the structural system. The lack of shear strength in two directions may be due to design errors, insufficient strength of the material, or overload.

    Keywords: reinforced concrete slab, punching, transverse reinforcement, fiberglass, carbon fiber

  • Improving additive manufacturing for construction by regulating the duration of breaks in 3D printing

    The results of experimental studies of improving additive manufacturing for construction due to the effect of an electric field (electrode heating) on the printed layers are presented. It makes possible to regulate the duration of the technological break of 3D printing in a wide time interval while ensuring high levels of layer adhesion and, accordingly, the quality of the finished construction product.

    Keywords: additive manufacturing for construction, 3D concrete printing, 3DCP, extrusion, technology, technological break, cold seam, bonding, adhesion, layer, concrete, quality

  • Mapping urban air pollution using mobile dust meters of the AirExpert Mini series

    Results of field tests of mobile dust meters of the AirExpert series based on optical sensors (OPC-R1 / OPC-N3) at the stationary air monitoring station "Shabolovka" State Environmental Budgetary Institution (GPBU) "Mosekomonitoring", Moscow, equipped with a dust analyzer (TEOM) series 1405 , showed that the measurement accuracy meets the requirements for instruments for measuring the quality of atmospheric air in populated areas. Mapping of atmospheric air pollution in certain areas of the cities of Obninsk, Dubna, St. Petersburg, Kursk, Moscow, Volgograd (2019-2024) was carried out, which made it possible to quickly assess the environmental situation in the study area in real time, thereby detailing the data from stationary monitoring posts.

    Keywords: mobile dust meters, monitoring, reference device, measurement accuracy, pollution mapping, hyperlocal monitoring

  • Disassembly mechanical cleaning of plate heat exchangers

    The article considers the problem of sediment formation, sludge and corrosion on the heat transfer surface during the operation of heat exchange equipment at housing and communal services facilities. A new method of non-selective mechanical cleaning using a water hammer is proposed. The description and principle of operation of this cleaning system at the central heating station of the Ogarev Moscow State University are given. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed technical solution, the results of thermal and hydraulic tests are presented.

    Keywords: deposits, sludge, corrosion, cleaning, heat exchanger, water hammer, heat transfer

  • Experimental study of the effect of the modulus of elasticity of concrete on the change in its strength under short-term loading on materials from the Hanoi region

    As part of the work on the PhD thesis on the creation of new systems and calculation devices for the design of reinforced concrete tanks for the storage of liquefied natural gas, work was done to determine the properties of concrete mixtures used in the construction of tanks in Vietnam, namely in the Hanoi area. A feature of the materials used for the manufacture of concrete is the use of local rocks, which have distinctive properties, which affects the strength and deformation properties of concrete. The article presents the results of experimental studies of the properties of concretes made with Vietnamese materials. A relationship was established between the modulus of elasticity of concrete and its prismatic compressive strength. As part of the study, 16 formulas of concrete mixtures on different materials from Vietnam were compiled and studied. As a result of the conducted research, the dependence of the modulus of elasticity and the intended strength of concrete was revealed, which will later be used in the creation of calculation devices for the design of reinforced concrete structures.

    Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, materials, structures, modulus of elasticity, prismatic strength of concrete, deformations

  • Methods for determining the bearing capacity of the supporting bases of offshore platforms under geodynamic influences in conditions of increased oil and gas production

    This article discusses the main factors leading to a decrease in the bearing capacity of the support bases and the possible loss of stability of the offshore platform, which will entail emergency consequences. The impact of free gas in the upper sections of the soil and dynamic external loads on the safety of construction and operation of oil platforms has been assessed. Calculations for the bearing capacity of the pile foundation of the support bases of the SPBU Astra in the Caspian Sea, performed according to existing methods, were analyzed. The determination of the strength of the soil is carried out for the calculated support surface – the section of the column having the maximum area.

    Keywords: geodynamic effects, bearing capacity, pile foundation, indentation depth, free gas

  • The influence of plastic shrinkage on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete during the reconstruction of buildings and structures

    The results of a study of the influence of shrinkage deformations on the basic physical and mechanical properties of concrete are presented depending on various production and technological factors. The research methodology took into account the choice of the period of aging concrete in a dry, hot climate to study the influence of physical processes in concrete on its physical and mechanical properties. The influence of shrinkage deformations on the strength characteristics of concrete was studied. an increase in the intensity of mass transfer processes between concrete and the environment leads to an increase in destructive shrinkage deformations, mainly plastic shrinkage of concrete, which lead to changes in the structure and physical and mechanical properties of mature concrete. The consistency of the concrete mixture also influences the amount of strength reduction. with a greater value of plastic shrinkage of concrete, its compressive and tensile strength in bending decreases. the destructive effect of plastic shrinkage on concrete caused depends on a number of technological factors (consistency of the concrete mixture, w/c, temperature and humidity hardening conditions, etc.).

    Keywords: curing period, mass transfer processes, plastic shrinkage, concrete structure, concrete strength, reconstruction, buildings and structures

  • Polycomplex composition for soil strengthening

    The article examines the application of properties of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyacrylic acid (PAK) polycomplex composition for soil strengthening. During the studies, the ratio of PEI and PAA (by dry weight) was established, at which the reagents most fully enter the complexation reaction. The polycomplex composition of the optimal composition was used to strengthen the soils of some varieties. When studying the properties of hardened soils, dependencies were obtained: the ultimate strength of the hardened soil on the relative humidity and the thickness of the layer of hardened soil on the consumption of complexing reagents. The paper concluded that the use of polycomplexes for soil strengthening is promising.

    Keywords: polycomplex composition, soil strengthening, polyethyleneimine, polyacrylic acid, impregnation method, dedusting, optimal humidity

  • Prospects for the implementation of lean construction principles

    The construction industry is undergoing regular changes these days, influenced by many different factors. Large and structurally complex construction projects reveal more and more imperfections in traditional construction methods, e.g. increased time or production costs, downtime, delays, etc. Lean construction and its principles have emerged in search of solutions to problems in construction. In the search for solutions to problems in construction, the term - lean construction and its principles appeared, which replaced traditional methods and aimed at finding new approaches in the implementation of construction activities. In this scientific article the definition of Lean Construction is given, and also the history of Lean Construction and its chronology are considered. The comparison of the traditional construction model and Lean model is given, and also the connection of Building Information Modeling (BIM) with Lean Construction principles is analysed and an example of this connection is given.

    Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean construction, construction, lean construction principles, lean technology, lean model, lean philosophy, life cycle of an object, information modelling technologies, engineering

  • Modeling the choice of the most effective roofing option

    An important condition for the high-quality development of the construction industry is the further increase in energy efficiency and environmental friendliness of design solutions in the field of roof enclosing structures. Therefore, solving the problem of correctly choosing the most effective roof instalation to increase the life cycle of the entire building becomes more relevant. The widespread use of a wide variety of both traditional and more durable and reliable roofing coverings in modern construction practice makes it difficult to choose the most effective option. The article develops a methodology for choosing an effective roof instalation option based on the use of economic and mathematical tools, based on the analysis of organizational and technological calculations and technical and economic comparison of various options

    Keywords: additive optimality criterion, roofing, roofing covering, operation, methodology, organizational and technological calculations, rational technology, roof tiles, operating costs, efficiency, economic and mathematical modeling

  • Architectural and urban planning strategies for expanding university campuses to accommodate growing student numbers

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the architectural and planning strategies used by universities to expand their campuses to accommodate growing student numbers. It provides a comprehensive analysis of four case studies that highlight successful methods used by universities to expand their campuses. The article focuses on analyzing the practical experience of three types of expansion strategies for existing campuses: vertical campus expansion, underground campus expansion, and horizontal campus expansion. Campus expansion strategies were discussed in terms of advantages and disadvantages and a comparative analysis was carried out. Lessons learned from each strategy have been drawn to benefit and offer solutions to other regions whose universities are suffering from the challenge of increasing university enrollment.

    Keywords: urban planning, higher education facilities, vertical development, underground development, horizontal development, university enrollment