The article examines not only the issues of ensuring mutual understanding and interaction of subjects of innovative engineering, but also the need for creative development of their consciousness. Attention is paid to the increasingly popular in the invention, in the technological business and innovative engineering of critical thinking and the possibilities of its constructive use. In the final article, the authors derive an algorithm for searching for creative solutions.
Keywords: dogmatism, criticism, creativity, constructivism, search for creative solutions
In the paper, we give a brief overview of the main developments made personally and under the direct supervision of the professor, academician RANS andIAELPS P. Kudryavtsev. These developments are devoted to the use of sol-gel processes in various branches of science and technology. Using this process, new composite heat-resistant materials, highly disperse materials and thin filmswere created. These developments have made it possible to create new efficient catalysts and highly selective inorganic ion-exchange materials. Based on inorganic ion-exchange materials, a technology was developed to extract lithium from natural brines, which are poor in lithium content. On the basis of sol-gel technology, new composite matrix-isolated flocculants-coagulants were created. These reagents are designed for the treatment of natural and wastewater in order to remove impurities of oil products and heavy metals.
Keywords: Nanomaterials, Sol-Gel Technology, Nanostructured Materials, Composite Materials, Highly Dispersed Materials, Thin Films, Catalysts, Highly Selective Inorganic Ion Exchangers, Extraction of Lithium, Composite Flocculants-Coagulants
The processes of extraction and processing of oil and oil products are accompanied by negative consequences at the level of the environment in the form of accidents. They act both on the water area and on land. This article is devoted to the liquidation of emergency oil and oil products spills with the help of natural sorbents. For the analysis, three readily available materials were taken in the national economy of the Russian Federation: wool, wheat straw and sawdust. The main indicative value for the sorbent is its oil capacity (sorption capacity) the amount of absorbed oil, which depends on the degree of specific surface of the material. The higher the specific surface area, the higher the sorption capacity. To determine the oil capacity, each of the materials was placed on a flat surface and artificially contaminated with oil for one hour. During the experiment, the absorbent capacity of the sorbents was determined, which for each proved to be different. Based on the data, graphs are constructed that clearly show the applicability of a material.
Keywords: Oil, oil products, extraction, oil consumption, material, sorbent, absorption, adsorption, accident, liquidation
The paper considers methods of taking into account the energy dependence of the effective mass of hot carriers in the volume of semiconductors of the AIIIBV type for three different cases of dispersion. The classical deviation of the dispersion from the quadratic law, the Kane deviation of the dispersion from the quadratic law and the dependence m (W), connected with the two-valley representation of semiconductors of the AIIIBV type, are analyzed. Energy dependences of the normalized effective mass for the main valley, lateral valley, and total energy are calculated, taking into account the intervalley transition and also the energy dependences of the normalized effective mass calculated by the equations. An estimation of the effect of an external electric field on the average carrier energy taking into account different dispersion mechanisms is made.
Keywords: dispersion characteristic, effective mass, quadratic law, Keynes deviation of dispersion, effect of "weighting" of electrons, energy dependencies, heating effects
The main maintenance of a diversification of production as activity of subjects of managing is considered. being shown in purchase of the operating enterprises, theIn this work, we carried out computer simulations of the equilibrium polarization in the ferroelectric noise within the two-dimensional model Ishibashi in the case of deposits and intra-parietal areas. We considered different configurations influence of thermal noise. The analysis revealed flicker noise in the simulated time dependence of the current strength.
Keywords: simulation, polarization current, domain walls, the noise, Ishibashi model, intra-region, parietal region
The existing and promising methods of drying of coatings from organic solvents presented. The important role of the temperature of the drying kinetics, which determines the rate of chemical and rheological processes. Shown the crucial role of design and technology solutions. The main problem of experimental research, calculation and simulation, energy resource and environment in the development of processes and equipment for the evaporation of solvents and coating treatment is determined.
Keywords: kinetics, drying, solvent, mode, experiment, modeling, coating
The aim of the paper is to investigate the interaction of two such pulses when they propagate through the sample. The urgency of few-cycle pulses study is associated with a large number of possible practical applications in various fields of science and technology (from medicine to the study of ultrafast processes). The modeling of the electromagnetic field evolution based on the Maxwell`s equations supplemented by an equation determining the behavior of the electric current in the system. Electrons were described in the long-wave effective Hamiltonian in the case of low temperatures. As a result of the study, the dependence of the shape of the few-cycle optical pulse on its initial velocity and initial amplitude was revealed. When a pair of few-cycle optical pulses interacts in the film of a topological insulator, several new pulses are formed. After a collision, they begin to propagate fairly stable with conservation of the acquired amplitudes. The effect, associated with the steady spread of pulses after the collision, may be useful in the development of hybrid devices based on the effect of light interaction with electrons of the topological insulator.
Keywords: few-cycle pulses, topological insulator, collision
The article first developed and proposed criterion values for 11 basic and 8 additional parameters of LED lighting devices intended for a comprehensive analysis of their quality. Of these, 10 parameters are essentially new.
Keywords: parameter, criterion value, quality control, main parameter, additional parameter, non-standard parameter
This article is devoted to the review of production methods for determining the rigidity of technological systems based on metal cutting machines. A description of each method, its characteristics, describes the principle of the appearance of elastic strains of technological systems and the possibility of their measurement. For each method, the limits of its applicability and the possibility of using it in different production situations are given. The mathematical dependences are given which can allow the process engineer to estimate the value of the elastic deformations of the technological system and make appropriate adjustments even at the stage of production preparation (for example, to change the trajectory of the tool when writing the control program for CNC machines). A statistical method for determining the rigidity of technological systems is described, the graphical dependence of elastic deformations on cutting forces is given.
Keywords: Rigidity of the technological system, elastic deformation, technological system, cutting force, production method for determining rigidity
In the article we have considered the actual problem of determining the error in visualization of generalized control criteria. It is indicated that the most common nonlinear interaction of parameters in technical systems is the multiplicative interaction of measured physical quantities. Based on the fact that the physical elements of the processor measuring channel have linear dynamic characteristics, it is concluded that the application of nonlinear transformations for quantitative estimates of the properties of monitoring systems requires linearization, the errors of which undoubtedly affect the accuracy of the final mathematical model and its magnitude may be is estimated and attributed to the methodological error of visualization. The process of linearization is considered for the example of the multiplicative interaction P of measured physical quantities. As a result of the analysis of the properties of many industrial control objects under the conditions of steady-state technological processes, it was found that they are characterized by small fluctuations with respect to the mathematical expectation (no more than 10%), which makes it possible to apply the obtained mathematical models of errors arising in the process of linearizing the measurement equations for control criteria, for design and research works.
Keywords: control objects, measuring system, programmable logic controllers, visualization error, mathematical expectation, adaptive control, linearized measurement equation, measurement error
The article deals with the question of constructing an analytical model in assessing a person's functional state. It is indicated that for complex measurement problems it is advisable to use the principles of constructing measuring systems, formulated in terms of system functions using the fractal-categorical approach; the technique is applicable in the design and analysis of complex medical complexes, and the resulting system function of a complex medical complex is the basis for further analysis within the selected method; The structural-analytical method for constructing complex systems makes it possible, by analyzing the requirements and constraints of the system, to optimize the functions of transferring control actions, to build blocks, parts of the structure on their basis, and to optimize inter-unit communications. The approach described in the article to the process of hematological research makes it possible to analyze the adaptive response of the body's hematopoietic system to external influences of a different nature and intensity.
Keywords: structural and analytical method, information-measuring system, information flows, hematopoietic system, category diagram, functors, adaptation contour, bioinstrumental information-measuring system, control signal, measurements.
In operation analytical expressions of amplitude of sound pressure for spherical absorbers as a result of influence of a laser radiation in liquid in a distant field are received. The thermooptoacoustic effect leads to excitation of acoustic waves in case of absorption of a variable luminous flux. It is shown that the optoacoustic effects watched in the liquid environments are beyond the osnovopolakgayushchikh of the developed models for the ideal environments and require more detailed reviewing and specification.
Keywords: optoacoustics, optoacoustic waves, bioliquid, cylindrical, spherical absorbers
In accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the basis of a complex of pros-pecting works, it is necessary to establish the rate of removal of the soil layer. The thickness of the removal of the soil layer is established on the basis of a complex of laboratory studies of soil samples taken from established soil hori-zons. The thickness of the soil horizons is currently determined using stock data based on the characteristic type of soil. However, the thickness of soil horizons in a number of cases on sections characterized by identical soil characteris-tics differ. Thus, in each specific case it is necessary to link the soil sections and boundaries of the selected soil con-tours instrumentally through ecological excavations. High saturation with soil workings can lead to a significant distur-bance of the soil cover of the surveyed area. To solve the above problem, it is proposed to use a unit for studying the power of multicomponent dynamical systems for vertical drilling of soil wells
Keywords: soil horizon, fertile layer, survey, withdrawal power, prospecting, well, drilling, capital construction, photographic fixation, deposition
The characteristics of amplifiers on resonant-tunnel diodes (RTDs) are analyzed using the method of approximation to them and operating at frequencies close to resonant. It was revealed that the nonlinear and resonant properties of the amplifier on the RTD are related and determined from each other; the nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristics of the RTD imparts a resonant curve to the form that usually occurs in the case of nonlinear reactivity. It is established that for large signals it is necessary to take into account the frequency dependence, which will complicate the course of the resonance curves. In this question, the most complete equivalent RTD scheme without simplifications.
Keywords: amplifier on resonant-tunnel diodes, equivalent circuit, amplitude-frequency characteristic, instability region, oscillatory characteristic, regeneration parameter
Electrotechnical devices starting processes short analysis is done including limited power autonomous system. The electrical installation starting processes with thermistor rheostats character depend on considered and formulated number of restrictions. The graphic depending’s are given characterizing different start models. The recommendations are given to form optimal starting processes with rheostats built on semiconductors polycrystalline thermistors.
Keywords: semiconductor thermoresistance, electrical installation, starting current, starting model, starting rheostat, starting processes dynamics
An experimental study of two instances of low-noise amplifiers of the range 1.5-2.0 GHz is carried out. The following results were obtained: the amplification gain varies from 24 to 37 dB in the frequency range; the maximum output power was not less than 10 mW (10 dBm); the compression point of 1 dB is achieved with an input power of minus 16 dBm. To illustrate the measurement results, two amplitude-frequency characteristics and an amplitude characteristic of the second specimen are given. The main element of the studied amplifier is a chip of the type MAAL-007304.
Keywords: Microwave power amplifier, decimeter waves, amplitude-frequency characteristic, experiment, microcircuit
A review of the serial microwave detectors of AEROFLEX company was conducted. Parameters of 116 detector models are considered. The features of AEROFLEX products are noted, including wide frequency range, high sensitivity, harsh operating conditions, a variety of design, including coaxial and strip type.
Keywords: detector, voltage sensitivity, tangential sensitivity, standing wave ratio, non-uniformity of the transfer characteristic, offset, overload protection
The article illustrates the problem of measuring the speed glider component targets in the presence of a turboprop effect of the reflected signal in a pulse-Doppler radar, proposed a model turboprop signal component and an algorithm for its suppression
Keywords: spectrum; radar; echo signal; turboprop effect; gliding component, micro-Doppler, radar
The article presents the results of simulation of the microstrip microwave structure of the ring configuration, which, by analogy with the fiber-optic prototype, embodies the principle of Fano resonance formation. This type of resonance is characterized by the asymmetry of the shape and has a narrower resonance than the classical Gaussian and Lorentzian forms.
Keywords: Ring resonator, Bragg reflection, Fano resonance, phase shift
In the article the possibilities of a modern system with numerical control FMS-3000(3200) compared to other common control racks. Given the specific production examples of the design of control programs for cases odnostoronnego and multilayer milling in power engineering. The analysis of the total length of programs and the complexity of their adjustments in the processing elements of the same type having different geometric dimensions. It is concluded that the use of specialized modal cycles in the control FMS-3000(3200) significantly increases the efficiency of program-controlled machining.
Keywords: system with numerical control, master control, machining, adjustment programs, technological equipment, routine, parameterization, multi-layered milling
Classification of heuristic methods for finding new solutions is presented. The classification is based on the hierarchical relationship of heuristic methods, based on their practical use. According to the proposed classification, heuristic methods are divided into three groups: methodological, systematic and empirical.
Keywords: classification, heuristic method, invention, hierarchy, interconnection
The paper contains the results of investigation of effectiveness of application of various models oriented towards interval time series (ITS) to forecasting behavior of gas distribution networks (GDS) parameters involving the real data obtained during the process of their continuous control. The necessity of taking into account the factor of seasonality caused by periodic fluctuations in the level of the corresponding variable is justified. A comparative analysis of the properties of the special interval modification of the model based on exponential smoothing, neural network and hybrid prediction models in relation to the ITS with seasonality is performed, their merits and demerits are noted.
Keywords: interval-valued time series, exponential smoothing model, neural model, long short-term memory, hybrid model
The questions of mathematical interpretation of results of trajectory measurements are discussed in terms of increasing the accuracy of identification of bearings of unmanned aerial vehicles during their movement in a "swarm" - a group. Variants of identification of horizontal and spatial bearings are offered. For each of the variants, criteria are proposed for identifying the belonging of the measured values to the same object in the group and the conditions for achieving them. The situation of false positives is shown. It is determined that additional identification measures are needed to eliminate false bearing triads and uncovered ambiguities, including the use of combinatorial exhaustive search algorithms. For their study, it is necessary to develop an experimental statistical model with an algorithmic description of cause-effect relationships, which is a further development of this work.
Keywords: " unmanned aerial vehicle, group of objects, bearing identification, horizontal bearing, spatial bearing, identification criteria, false notch"
The problems of studying the mathematical interpretation of the results of trajectory measurements in terms of increasing the accuracy of identification of bearings of unmanned aerial vehicles during their movement in the group "swarm" and "system" are discussed. The variants of identification of horizontal (IHP) and spatial bearings (PPI) are proposed both separately and in a complementary application. Identification of bearings of similar objects in the swarm type group is expedient to be carried out according to the IGP-IPP algorithm. However, it is only partly operational at distances of 3 km or more. As the main algorithm for identifying bearings of similar objects in the "Story" group, it is advisable to use IPP. Although these algorithms achieve high identification efficiency under favorable conditions, with tougher conditions, they drop rather sharply. Therefore, to maintain a high level of probability of "pure" identification, it is advisable to use additional measures to combat false triads. For the removal of problems, it is necessary to develop and apply combinatorial algorithms for exhaustive search, which is the direction for the development of further research.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, group of objects, bearing identification, horizontal bearing, spatial bearing, identification criteria, false notch
The constructions of directional microphones of the "linear" type and the test procedure are described. On a controlled lane of the highway, full-scale studies of microphones produced by the authors were carried out. Thus, the relative error in the measurement of microphones No. 1 and 2 was found, which was 12.1 and 13%, respectively. The minimum error is detected with a microphone of the "linear" type No. 1, whose slots are located on the sides on four sides
Keywords: transport stream, transport noise, passive acoustic detector, directional microphone