A promising direction of protection of the atmospheres from the functioning of maritime transport is a method of recirculating part of the exhaust gases from the diesel gas exhaust system to the compressor suction with their intermediate cooling and cleaning in a cyclone-foam apparatus. There is still no method to solve the problem of processing ballast water 100% effective for reliable protection of the hydrosphere. The perspective of the technology of physical and chemical disinfection of ballast with chlorine and ultraviolet radiation in the new developments, with the joint application of such technologies with mechanical filtration, is noted. Development of ballast-less vessels with floating air tanks is underway. The use of external reservoir systems makes it possible not to create internal ballast tanks with pipelines and cleaning systems on ships.
Keywords: ecological safety, maritime shipping, atmosphere protection, ballast water, hydrosphere protection
The article discusses a new trend of our time-green roof. The types of roof landscaping, their differences and average costs are described. The reasons of alternative replacement of a traditional roof and indisputable advantages of green are explained. The main layers of the "pie" of this roof and the principle of inverted roof, which is becoming increasingly common in the world, as well as its advantages, are considered. The popularity of green roofing in Russia and the opportunity not only to visually improve your home and create a "green corner" without leaving home, but also to reduce heat costs, increase noise insulation and clean the air from harmful impurities.
Keywords: green roof, extensive landscaping, intensive landscaping, inverted roof principle, minimizing heat loss, economical energy consumption, noise insulation
This article analyzes the existing sources of power supply of oil and gas industry facilities, as well as the study of the possible use of alternative energy sources in industrial enterprises; The advantages and disadvantages of using this type of power supply for remote infrastructure are considered.
Keywords: energy, power supply, power plant, industrial facility, wind, solar radiation, power, power plant, wind energy, source
The paper is based on a review of the scientific publications released from May through October 2019, the greater part of which, namely 14 papers, is included in the Web of Science scientometric database. The authors of the papers analyzed explore the construction industry problems over the past 5 years. The foreign studies listed in the reference section were based on the analysis of reviews falling in the above-mentioned timeline. The purpose of this paper is to identify the problems hindering the implementation of BIM technologies in the construction sector, not only in the foreign countries, but also in Russia.
Keywords: building information modeling, construction organizations, critical problems, external factors, absence of organizational support
The method of integration of MS Office application programs together with MathCAD package into calculation practice is proposed. The algorithm of calculation is given and various variants of the solution of a problem at change of parameters of the settlement scheme of rod system on the example of a beam in the MS Excel software environment are considered.
Keywords: the core of the system, algorithm, modelling, integration, information technology
Aerodynamic and hydraulic calculations – time-consuming and important steps in the design of engineering systems. There are many different programs for the calculations of heating and ventilation systems. Such as Autodesk REVIT, software, dramatically gaining popularity in the field of BIM-modeling. Design engineers using this software package for the calculations, are faced with the problem of mismatch of diameters, pressure loss between the program and manual calculation. In this regard, it was necessary to understand this problem: compare the calculation results of velocity and pressure losses in the air ducts and pipings in the program REVIT with traditional methods of calculation, find out what formulas calculates this program . The calculations in software Autodesk REVIT have an errors and inaccuracy. Backed by Russian standards, it is necessary will understand how accurate and correct calculations produces software package. The work examines the results hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations, analysises this results with the results of calculations by traditional methods. Calculations in software Autodesk REVIT is applicable for calculating systems of ventilation, but for calculating systems of heating better not to use this program. For the bold use calculations of program is necessary improvement of the software.
Keywords: BIM-technologies, Building Information Model, Autodesk REVIT, software, BIM-modeling, aerodynamic calculation, hydraulic calculation, system of ventilation, system оf heating, comparative analysis
The work is devoted to the structural characterization of carbon nanotubes by means of electronic combination scattering of light. Samples of double-walled carbon nanotubes with various electronic configurations of the layers have been synthesized, their study has been performed by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, Rayleigh spectroscopy, as well as spectroscopy of combination scattering of light. The structural characterization of the synthesized nanotubes has been carried out using electronic combination scattering of light, which can play the role of an additional criteria for nanotubes indexing, helping to clarify and verify the obtained results.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, catalytic chemical vapor deposition, spectroscopy of combination scattering of light
The article presents the results of studies of cobalt catalysts for the synthesis of hydrocarbons on a silicate support with promoting additives of aluminum, manganese and chromium. The influence of additives on the structural (specific surface area, dispersion of metallic cobalt, size of metal crystallites) and chemical (cobalt reduction degree) properties of catalysts was established.
Keywords: cobalt, catalysts, hydrocarbon synthesis, structural properties, promoters
Launch and control circuit systems built on traditional devices represent complicate multi-link system. Its liability is determined by a number of intermediate devices. Launch jaggedness – is one of the significant flaws, negatively affect on launching process dynamics. Promising direction of launch and control circuits devices are rheostats built on high current semi-conduct polycrystalline thermistors. At the article short analysis of electrotechnical devices launch processes is given. A power engines launch process with thermistor rheostats is considered and formulated a number of limits. Graphic dependences characterizing launch current and rotating moment at direct launch changing and with rheostats on thermistors are given. An example of launch current for asynchronic engine with phase rotor calculating is given as well.
Keywords: semiconducting thermos-resistance, launch rheostat, launch currents curves, generalized constant, automation.
On the basis of the proposed Timoshenko S. P. solution of the problem of pure bending of an elastic rectangular plate under the action of moments of constant intensity acting on its boundary, the theory of bending of viscoelastic plates fixed in the vertices is proposed for the first time. The proposed solution uses the hereditary theory taking into account the hypothesis of N. H. Harutyunyan about the constancy of the coefficient of transverse deformation. For the first time, a method of recalculation of the distributed transverse load applied on the surface of the plate at equivalent moments of constant intensity, time-dependent and applied at the edges, is proposed. For the first time with the help of this theory, the problem of bending a plate pinched at a single angular point distributed by a transverse load is solved. As examples, calculations of rectangular plates under the action of their own weight are given.
Keywords: roller blade, horizontal mixer, optimization, design, process, material procurement, machining, reduction of production costs
For the three main processes of the enterprise, identified in the decomposition of its activities, a mathematical model in the space of conditions is developed, taking into account their relationship and interaction in the quality management system. For the obtained system of differential equations, the structural composition of the operators included in it is disclosed. An example of the application of the created mathematical model in the study of the functioning of the quality management system using linear and non-linear operators and the action of random external disturbances is considered. A discussion of the simulation results at various parameter values from the point of view of the functioning of the selected processes is presented.
Keywords: differential equation, space of conditions, process, quality management system
Systems that allow generating programs for monitoring the state of technical objects are explored. The generation of programs involves the construction of models of objects from the data received from them and the construction of data collection processes. The dependences of the complexity of the generation of models of monitoring objects on the dimension of the input stream, the dimensions of the characteristic vectors describing the state of the elements of the objects of monitoring, as well as the dependences of the complexity of the generation of data collection processes on the number of structural levels of objects, the number of information elements on each level, and the probabilities of generating processes on each of the levels. Based on the results obtained, recommendations are formulated on the use of monitoring program generation systems in solving practical problems in particular domain: recommendation on selecting right balance between often and rare model rebuilding and expediency criteria of the monitoring process generation system usage.
Keywords: complex technical object, monitoring, program generation
Based on the cognitive methodology, the article considers the factors within and inter-regional migration process in the conditions of the regional community on the example of the Rostov region. Using the method of cognitive maps, the main factors of two forms of migration are visualized from the perspective of a systemic and structural approach. The structure of direct and reverse action factors that enhance / weaken the influence of structural and institutional elements on the processes of population displacement, their adaptation to new social conditions and integration into the host community is presented. Conclusions are made about the dominant factors of direct and reverse influence on the process of intra-regional (socio-economic, geographical, demographic) and inter-regional migration in the region (socio-psychological state of the population, the level of consolidation of the regional community, the activities of regional executive bodies).
Keywords: cognitive model, cognitive map, migration process, regional migration, interregional migration, direct action factors, reverse action factors, Rostov Region
The article presents a system for monitoring the technical condition of technological mechatronic objects using a neural network of state analysis. The aim of the work is to increase the reliability of the equipment, reduce the number of sudden failures and emergencies by assessing the dynamic state of the spindle unit of the mechatronic technological object. A method for diagnosing the state of the spindle unit of a mechatronic object using a neural network based on the time domain features of vibration signals is proposed and applied. The structure of the neurosystem is proposed. The data obtained during practical tests, as well as the structure of the neural network for diagnosing the state of technological mechatronic objects, are presented.
Keywords: state control, mechatronic object, neural network, spindle unit, vibration signal, time domain features
The article describes in detail the algorithm for constructing a mathematical model that allows you to describe the process of processing a spherical surface, provides an analysis of the change in the radius of the cutter, which allows you to choose the optimal cutting conditions and create conditions for automation of the process.
Keywords: Software, process automation, spherical surface, spherical surface treatment.
The article deals with the reducing issues the time spent of making informed decisions by automating the workplace of a transport engineer on the basis of the development and use of methods for selecting and calculating the number of vehicles for servicing remote objects. A specific example based on the transport service of electric power facilities, which can be implemented in any software of the organization, is considered
Keywords: Workplace automation, transport operation engineer, transport service, electric power facility, calculation of the number of vehicles.
The article analyzes network traffic in WINDOWS operating systems, as well as a description of its tools to identify a certain redundancy of network activity. The authors also conduct a comparative analysis of the most common software products that perform the functions of monitoring network traffic.
Keywords: operating system, detection systems, network protocol, network traffic analysis, networks, sniffer, traffic, network activity
The increasing load on the power supply system of electrified railways leads to higher requirements for reliability of power supply. Clarifying the criteria for the operation of the automated system to combat ice formation on the wires of traction power supply to railways in difficult weather conditions is an urgent task aimed at improving the reliability of uninterrupted power supply of rolling stock
Keywords: ice melting, calculated coefficients, selection of optimal parameters, traction power supply system
The trend of the transition of autonomous vehicles from internal combustion engines to electric drives leads to the need to find intermediate solutions. Hybrid transport is currently a fairly popular compromise. Improving its energy efficiency is possible in several ways. This article shows a software method based on dynamic programming, which allows you to optimize fuel consumption by separating the use of an internal combustion engine and an electric drive. Dynamic programming solves recursive optimization problems when sub-tasks are recounted several times. Also, in this work, mathematical modeling of the car’s movement pattern and determination of the optimal distribution of speed and battery charge depending on the number of fractional bits are carried out. The development of dynamic programming from the point of view of hardware implementation is possible using Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA).
Keywords: Hybrid transport, mathematical modeling, dynamic programming, programmable logic integrated circuits, internal combustion engine, electric drive
This article concentrates on the issues of radio wave propagation in forest conditions. The issue of representing the forest mass as a heterogeneous structure with a low dielectric constant is considered. Calculation and comparison of radio signal attenuation using several empirical models were carried out. It is shown that empirical models take into account the heterogeneous structure of the forest when moving from free space to the forest.
Keywords: radiowave propagation, wooded area, empirical model, radiowave attenuation, path loss, ground mobile communication, electrodynamic characteristics of a heterogeneous structure
The emergence of digital X-ray machines and the development of cloud storage technology has led to the accumulation of a huge number of medical X-rays, in particular, chest x-rays - fluorography. The accumulated image bases after high-quality preprocessing can be used to train the deep convolutional neural networks that have received the most development in recent years, the trained network performs preliminary binary classification of the incoming flow of images and can be used as a radiologist assistant. For this purpose, it is necessary to adequately train the neural net-work to minimize errors of the first and second kind. A possible approach to improving the efficiency of neural networks, reducing the computational complexity and quality of image classification by the criteria is the use of auxiliary approaches of image preprocessing and preliminary entropy calculation. The article presents an algorithm for the X-ray image preprocessing, its division into fragments and the calculation of the entropy of individual fragments. During the preprocessing, the region of interest with lungs and the spine is selected from the entire image, constituting about 30-40% of the entire image, then the image is divided into a fragment matrix and the entropy of individual fragments is calculated using the Shannon formula, by analyzing individual pixels. By determining the frequency of each of the 255 colors, the total entropy is calculated. The use of entropy for detecting pathologies is based on the assumption of dif-ferences in its values for individual fragments and the overall picture of its distribution between images with the norm and pathologies. Statistical indicators are analyzed: standard deviation of error, variance.
Keywords: image entropy, fragments, deep convolutional neural network, machine learning, x-rays images, computational experiment, matrix of elements, image preprocessing, statistical analysis, binary classification
The purpose of this study is to perform a classification to form a knowledge base in the field of harvesting and use in industry and in the social sphere of one of the valuable types of non-wood forest resources-tree greens. Such knowledge base is necessary for synthesis of new progressive processes, machines and mechanisms for harvesting and use of wood greens. The basis of the classification formation is based on the analysis of technological and technical solutions based on scientific and technical search, given in inventions and utility models patented in 2010-2019 in the Russian Federation. As a result of researches the main directions of patenting of developments in the field of preparation and use of wood greens are classified.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
The publication is devoted to the task of developing a demo-genetic model of the adaptation of pests to transgenic and hybrid agricultural crops, taking into account the type of taxis. An assumption is introduced that the dynamics of hybrid agricultural crops can be investigated using demo-genetic models. A description of the problem is given in accordance with the characteristics of the growth of biomass of agricultural crops and the dynamics of pests, as well as taxis species. The modeling of the processes of fast and slow taxis depending on the behavior of pests at a particular point in time is described in detail, taking into account the type of their genotypes that affect the acquisition of mutations. The paper describes the features of the physiological structure and life cycle of insect pests, affecting the prediction of their spatial concentration and, accordingly, the prediction of productivity; the possibilities of their application in mathematical modeling.
Keywords: demo-genetic model, taxis, transgenic agriculture, hybrid, pest, biomass, diffusion
The reliability of the solar heating system with solar collectors was studied using the logical-probabilistic method by building a fault tree. The fault tree was obtained by sequentially detailing the events associated with failures of the solar heating system, as well as its elements. Events were taken into account: conducting test diagnostics of elements of the power supply system, repairing failed elements, failure of elements, reducing the power of solar collectors due to a decrease in the intensity of the solar radiation. The events were divided into two groups: events in which there is sufficient intensity of solar radiation for the hot water supply from the solar collectors, as well as events when the heating supply cannot be provided only due to the solar collectors. The last group of events was divided into two subgroups, within events caused short-term downtimes (at the time of switching) and long-term downtimes (at the time of replacing or repairing a failed system element). Long shutdowns are associated with the coincidence of failures, repair or diagnosis of one or more elements of the solar heating system. Expressions are compiled to calculate the probability of long downtimes, the probability of short downtimes, the probability of failure due to a decrease in the intensity of the solar radiation, and the total probability of failures. As a result of substituting the values of the reliability indicators of the elements of the solar heating system, the value of the total probability of failure during the year is 4.03∙10-5.
Keywords: solar hot water supply, reliability, solar collector, failure cause, reliability modeling
To calculate the trajectory and coordinates of the droplets, the time of their flight, it is necessary to determine the parameters of droplet evaporation and their concentration in the stream. After the nozzle passes, the droplets move along different trajectories and form a fuel torch. The trajectory of the torch droplets is calculated according to the given initial parameters of the droplets, as well as the parameters of the nozzle and taking into account their influence on the movement of the droplet The aim of this work is to calculate the temperature of the evaporating droplet layer, which is necessary for calculating the trajectory and time of the droplet's motion depending on the thermodynamic parameters of the fuel. Based on the obtained air and fuel vapor parameters, the temperature of the evaporating droplet layer is found, which is necessary for calculating the trajectory, coordinates and time of movement of the fuel droplets after the nozzle.
Keywords: fuel, centrifugal nozzle, atomization spectrum, trajectory, evaporation temperature