The process of creating an automated information system for organizations working in the road sector using CASE technologies is described. The first stage of the Life cycle – analysis of the subject area in the aspect of modeling business processes associated with the acquisition, maintenance, movement and verification of devices and equipment is showh. Charts are presented: business use cases, use cases and UML activities.
Keywords: instrumentation, equipment, measurement, testing, metrological verification, object-oriented approach, activity diagrams, use case diagram, Microsoft Visual Studio 2012
High-current semiconductor polycrystalline thermistors of high power of coaxial type have a large mass and consequently, considerable heat capacity and heat resistance. Due to this, the thermophysical and electrophysical processes in them are different in the steady and transient regimes, which is especially important in regimes. which lasts a fraction or a unit of seconds. The main variants of operation of such thermistors in dynamic modes are considered and various characteristics are given.
Keywords: Thermistor, thermal and electrophysical characteristics, electric motors, electrophysical and thermal characteristics of semiconductor thermo-resistors of coaxial type
The physical and chemical properties of cobalt catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have been studied. The effect of copper and iron oxides on the specific surface, pore volume and dimensions, and the degree of reduction of metallic cobalt on the surface of the Co-Al2O3 / SiO2 catalyst have been studied.
Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, synthetic hydrocarbons, catalyst, cobalt, promoter, carrier, specific surface, porous structure, catalytic activity, reduction degree
The paper contains an analysis of the results of experiments on obtaining radiative structures based on gallium antimonide, formed by the method of thermal melt migration in a semiconductor matrix. The epitaxial process modes within the selected range were optimized for such parameters as the wavelength corresponding to the fundamental transition, a small lattice discrepancy, a small discrepancy in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the growing TP and the matrix. An original effect is described - an increase in the solubility of the Bi content in solid solutions, isoperiodic binary compounds A3B5 under conditions of a gradient temperature field. This effect allows a wide variation in the optical parameters of the element base of instruments based on solid solutions of GaSbBi / GaSb. The mechanisms of the generation of dislocations in a crystallized solid solution and the features of electrophysical and photoelectric parameters are analyzed. A structural solution of a light-emitting diode with strip geometry is proposed.
Keywords: solid solutions, recrystallization, gradient liquid-phase epitaxy, thermomigration, indium antimonide-bismuthide, melt thickness, temperature gradient, components, growth coordinate, epitaxial layers
In this paper, the modeling of phase equilibria in multicomponent systems of A3B5 compounds was carried out and the compositions of the liquid phase equilibrated with a given solid solution were calculated. A model of excess thermodynamic functions is used, which takes into account the formation of associates in the melt near the solidus temperatures. The developed algorithm allows solving a direct problem (in which the input parameters are the growth temperature of the layers and the composition of the solid phase corresponding to the expected instrument characteristics) and the inverse problem (the growth temperature and composition of the solid solution are sought for the given liquid phase). The limiting concentrations of the alloying components, arsenic and bismuth, are determined. The structural and electrophysical characteristics of multicomponent semiconductor A3B5 heterosystems are discussed, the solid solutions of which crystallize from the liquid phase in a gradient thermal field. The mechanism for introducing impurities into the lattice of epitaxial layers of multicomponent solid solutions is described for the first time. With an increase in the thickness of the crystallizable film, the thermodynamically equilibrium substitution by antimony bismuth atoms is completed and the introduction of Bi atoms into the interstices takes place. The interaction of neighboring atoms with the valence electron shells of Bi becomes more symmetrical, which causes an increase in concentration. The concentration of film defects near its rear surface also increases. The obtained values of electrophysical parameters make it possible to draw a conclusion about the instrumental suitability of the materials under study.
Keywords: solid solutions, mesostructure, antimonide, alloying, liquid phase, phase transformations, binary compounds, associates, lattice constant, multicomponent systems
A complex of technological operations for the formation of a cathode liner based on manganese dioxide is of particular importance in the production of tantalum oxide-semiconductor capacitors. Electrical characteristics and reliability indicators of capacitors are laid at this stage in their manufacture. In according with the classical technology, the formation of a semiconductor coating of MnO2 on tantalum capacitors is associated with multiple heating of oxidized anodes with the previous impregnation in solutions of manganese nitrate. It has a negative effect on the quality of the Ta2O5-dielectric. To minimize the defect formation in the dielectric, is realized a periodic electrochemical anodization of the tantalum anode in the acetic acid solution by anodic connection of the sections of the capacitors to the direct current source. The authors proposed to modify the process of reanodization of sections of tantalum oxide-semiconductor capacitors by changing the composition of the electrolyte. The results of the investigation of the electrochemical anodizing of a tantalum anode in aqueous solutions of nitric acid and manganese nitrate are presented, the morphology of the obtained coatings, their phase composition, as well as electrical parameters of the sections of capacitors manufactured by the proposed method are analyzed.
Keywords: Tantalum oxide-semiconductor capacitor, reanodization, manganese nitrate, capacitance, leakage current, dielectric loss tangent, electrolyte
Annotation: Several ways of utilizing the generated heat, produced by the final gas of boiler unit are analyzed in this article. The first method consists of implementing of heat pump into the process flow diagram of boiler-house plant. The second method encompasses the implementation of axifugal dry box into the process flow diagram. The dry box is implemented into the smoke removal system and also serves as axifugal smoke exhauster. The most widespread method is copious cooling of combustion product gas in steam condensing plants. The copious cooling of smokestack exhaust gases in steam condensing plants allows the full incorporation of sensible heat of smokestack exhaust gases (low heat value). The copious cooling allows the extraction of condensation heat of moistere vapours. The result would be the increasing ratio of utilization of boiler unit by 10-12 percent in optimum performance [ 5,6]. The implementation of steam condensing plant allows to decrease the concentration of nitrogen oxide in smokestack exhaust gases. The same effect can be achieved by implementation of heat pump plant. The efficiency of project implementation of steam condensing plant installation depends to a greater extent on the measure of the amount of hours of operation on peak capacity in recycling mode . Therefore, the way of optimization of boiler flow diagram with the implementation of steam condensing plant, is suggested. This article contains calculations and technical and economic assessment of implementation heat-exchange facility, installed on bypass pipe of opetational block-modulator boiler-house plant with capability of 0,2 Gcal/hr, located in Spassk .
Keywords: Boiler-house plant, Steam condensing plant, final gas, heating agent, heat supply system, heat recovery unit, process flow diagram of boiler-house plant, optimization, boiler unit, smokestack exhaust gases, heat producing plant, condensing, heat-exchange
The analysis of the influence of heating on the depth of polymerization of composite materials of light curing is carried out. An electronic micrometer was used to measure the polymerization depth. The greatest difference in the depth of polymerization before and after heating was obtained from Filtek ULTIMATE "3M ESPE" composite material. The smallest difference in the depth of polymerization before and after heating of Nexcomp "MetabioMEDCo". After heating, the plastic and flow properties of the materials are improved, which improves the adaptation to the walls of the cavity during the restoration.
Keywords: Light-cured composite materials, polymerization, heating of composites, micrometre
The problem of the propagation of nonlinear surface waves in a magnetized liquid of infinite depth is solved. The dependence of the frequency of wave oscillations on the magnitude of the magnetic field strength is shown in the graphs. Trajectories of motion of particles of liquid are found. The effect of a magnetic field on the height of a wave is investigated. The results of the study can be used to calculate various technical devices and technological processes.
Keywords: surface waves, magnetizable liquid, magnetic field, wave number, frequency of wave oscillation, magnetic field intensity
When modeling the transport of hot carriers in strong electric fields and using various mathematical relationships describing these processes, usually do not take into account inhomogeneities of impurity doping, which affect the field distribution and the density of the output current. In this paper, we calculated the field distribution along the length of the diode chip. In this case, a one-dimensional model and a phenomenological approach to the description of carrier behavior were used. The results obtained allow one to estimate the influence of the inhomogeneity on the operating modes of the Gunn diode and can be used to create models of higher orders.
Keywords: Gunn diode, numerical modeling, heterogeneity doping physical topological model
In the framework of simple volumetric models of electron concentration in the F layer of the polar ionosphere, the influence of non-stationary convection on the state of radio paths in high latitudes is considered. Calculations of three-dimensional trajectories of HF-radio beams showed a significant difference for quiet and disturbed conditions
Keywords: ionosphere, refraction, convection, plasma, radio beams, high latitudes
The paper presents the characteristics of wind and solar resources of the Southern Federal District on the basis of which the assessment of the prospects for introducing innovative innovations such as perovskite photovoltaic cells and Vertical-axis wind turbines into the process of district energy production is given.
Keywords: Vertical-axis wind turbines, alternative energy source, wind power, wind turbine, renewable energy source, perovskite photocell, solar battery, solar energy, energy resources of the Southern Federal District, energy saving
The technique of improving the quality of remote diagnostics of cars is proposed. This method makes it possible to learn real-time and real-time information about the status of the functional units of the car, thereby assessing its technical condition.
Keywords: remote diagnostics, car service, car
The paper describes the regression model of the change in the ice coverage of the White Sea, obtained on the basis of satellite data of NSIDC. Changes in the ice coverage of the White Sea are mathematically described by a polynomial of the 6th degree, the quality of which is characterized by a coefficient of determination of 0.78. On the basis of the obtained mathematical model, the terms and duration of the phases of the ice regime of the White Sea are established, and also the analysis of the rate of formation and destruction of ice formations is given.
Keywords: ice coverage, ice phenomena, regression model, White Sea, satellite data of NSIDC
The urgency of estimating the content of nitrates in food products to ensure environmental safety at an individual level is discussed in the article. Data on the negative effect of increased nitrate content in plant foods on human health are given. The results of the study on the determination of the content of nitrates in food products using a household nitrate counter "Soek nuk-019-2" are discussed. This device makes a conclusion about the concentration of nitrates by comparing the reference electrical conductivity of different types of vegetables / fruits with the electrical conductivity of a particular controlled product. It is determined that exceeding the MPC is observed in potatoes and onions, which are sold through a network of stores that occupy leading positions in the prevalence in Taganrog. Excess of MAC in carrots is observed only in its central part (core). Based on the results obtained, practical recommendations are given to ensure the safety of food consumption.
Keywords: food safety, food, nitrate content, household nitrate
The article describes the algorithm of recognition of schematic diagrams in the framework of structural design of complex technical objects. It is specified that at statement of a problem of development of the specialized vectorizer it is necessary to define: software subsystems of the simplest tracer; algorithms of the analysis of images; formats of representation of the end result; initial data (formats) for recognition. As a result, it was concluded that for structural and circuit design, during which the vertex of the final portrait of the graph of the projected system is replaced, obtained after optimization by the criterion of the set of the smallest external stability, it is necessary to recognize images of graphic elements. The proposed algorithm allows for adequate recognition of the elements of electronic circuits, which further makes it possible to automatically replenish the database of elements with new elements in a given format.
Keywords: vectorization, concept recognition algorithm, structural design, graphic, element, raster image, electronic circuits, semi-graphical display, block-the functional distribution of the tracer
The comparison of different methods of selection of signs for identification of objects on digital images of microscopic preparations of sputum, colored by the method of tsilya-Nilsen. The following methods were considered: the method of intersections, Shannon, kulbaka and accumulated frequencies. It is concluded that the method of intersections allows the selection of features from the entire feature space so that the classification models allow to obtain the maximum accuracy of classification with the least number of input parameters.
Keywords: method Ziehl-Nielsen, object recognition, image recognition, selection of features, the method of cumulative frequencies, the method of Shannon, Kullback, the method of intersections, logistic regression, classification tree, discriminant analysis
Today non-destructive methods are widely spread due to its mobility and accuracy. This article describes the main types of nondestructive testing commonly used in manufacturing and at the construction site, namely magnetic, eddy current, ultrasonic and visual. Describe the principle of each method and its key features.
Keywords: Non-destructive testing, mechanical characteristics, strength, hardness
This article describes the relevance of geodetic control. Briefly describes the existing and proposed methods of geodetic control. Also the special device for geodetic researches of industrial buildings and constructions is offered. This device is attached to the geodetic rail, it is fixed laser rangefinder. With this device it is possible to perform geodetic survey of building structures of an industrial building or structure without fixing reference points. The technical task of the claimed device is the joint use (fixation) of the standard laser rangefinder and geodetic rack due to the constructive execution of the device, in the production of geodetic works to determine the deflections of supporting structures of industrial, public and residential buildings. For verification of the claimed device was carried out surveying work for determining deflections of the roof trusses of an industrial enterprise. Conclusion: labor costs of geodetic works were reduced in comparison with traditional methods by an average of 20 – 30%.
Keywords: geodesy, laser rangefinder, survey rail, survey, device, building, structure, plate, bolt, thread, size
The modern schemes of phase shifters used in radio receivers, antenna systems, synchronous detectors are limited in a wide frequency range to dependence of phase shift at the release of the scheme from the frequency of an entrance signal. In this work the new scheme of the programmable phase shifter which allows to use the phase shifter in the wide frequenciest range irrespective of the frequency of an entrance signal and also to carry out a phase displacement with a high precision is offered.
Keywords: phase shifter, synchronous detector, lag line
Application of low-power thermal resistors in starters requires availability of intermediate equipment and various components. It significantly reduces the reliability of the equipment. Increase in currents flowing through the pre-regulating devices simplifies electrical schematic of the control and regulation. To use thermal resistors in circuits with high currents it is necessary to use special designs, for the purpose of thermoresistor's material overheating prevention. Algorithms for synthesis of starting rheostats are given. The dependences characterizing different starting models are given.
Keywords: semiconductor thermal resistance, starting current models, generalized current characteristics
The material is based on the results of surveys of business activity of Russian enterprises and organizations in the Chelyabinsk region, including: large and medium-sized industrial enterprises; construction firms; organizations of retail trade, services, tourism and catering. The obtained conclusions as a result of the conducted researches are based on the information of the official bodies of the Chelyabinsk region, Rosstat management and reports of enterprises. As a result, the conclusion was made about the need to improve the tourism infrastructure, the widespread introduction of modern technologies into the tourism business, with the creation of a single tourist cluster in the Chelyabinsk region with an orientation to cross-sectoral cooperation. The creation of a regional tourist cluster contributes to the most effective use of the integration process in the allocation of investment resources in the region.
Keywords: factors, production, construction, tourism, investment, attractiveness, tourist cluster, management.
The article identifies tasks that can be solved by robots for agricultural purposes. Held the problem statement for robotics irrigation machines (DM) type "Frigate" due to the fuzzy control of technological processes of watering, allowing you to control the irrigation rate during the entire irrigation season regardless of the various uncertain factors that affect the quality of irrigation. Proposed to be used by DM crane-preselection analog operation, working by electricity, the fuzzy will be managed by improved control system, as well as to enter into the system management subsystem diagnostics, including sensors for measuring soil moisture and slope of DM in different parts of the field. The mathematical model of fuzzy control irrigation machine due to the software regulation of water flow depending on the topography of the field, the speed of movement of the machine across the field and soil moisture to reduce water consumption and improve the efficiency of DM. As the fuzzy logic algorithm the proposed algorithm of Mamdani, which is easily implemented in MATLAB based on the knowledge and experience of experts, and simulation. Formalization of the description of the performance of the machine carried out with the help of linguistic variables, given the type and description of elements of term-sets of these variables. The proposed mathematical model can be used when designing control systems for other robotic farm machinery.
Keywords: robotic irrigation system, fuzzy control, mathematical model, algorithm of fuzzy inference, linguistic variable, term set of a linguistic variable, basic variety
The process of designing open-cast mining, in particular a quarry, is justification of technical solutions, economic efficiency, environmental and industrial safety of the construction of a new or reconstruction of the old quarry, identification of its key parameters characterizing the quarry as an industrial facility. The article raises the question of providing the enterprises of the oil and gas industry with construction materials, and, in particular, the project side of the main stages is being studied. So, in the article the features of engineering surveys, geological exploration and design works are studied in detail. The section ""Surveys"" describes the composition of the full complex of engineering surveys, the necessary grounds for their performing, as well as the requirements for their implementation. In the ""Design"" section, the composition of project documentation for the quarry development is studied in detail. The strategic tasks, which are solved by the project of common mineral resources deposits open development, are presented. The article reveals the main design (technical) solutions that should be adopted at various stages of the project documentation development. Special attention is paid to the disturbed lands reclamation section. The project stages are also described. In the section ""Obtaining the right to use a subsoil plot for the purpose of commonly used minerals mining "", the process of licensing of quarries and possible schemes for registration of rights is described. The conclusion is made about the need for further development and modernization of normative acts regulating relations for the preparation of project documentation.
Keywords: elaboration of design documents, design, stripping, common commercial minerals, quarry, engineering survey, geological exploration, licensing, mining rights
The authors developed an algorithm, a microprocessor system for studying the distribution of values of breakdown voltages in the gap of the spark plug. The microprocessor system includes capacitive voltage dividers and a device for processing and outputting information. The device for processing and outputting information consists of the following main blocks: peak detector, microcontroller and LCD indicator. The field studies of the microprocessor system were carried out at idle speed with the minimum engine speed of the crankshaft. A histogram of the distribution of the values of the breakdown voltage in the interelectrode gap of the spark plug is obtained. The application of this system not only in the laboratory environment, but also on the car can provide valuable information about malfunctions in the ignition system and assess the dependence of the intercycle non-identity of the engine working process on the variations of the breakdown voltage
Keywords: ignition system, spark discharge, internal combustion engine, spark plugs, breakdown voltage, microprocessor, capacitive voltage divider