The efficiency of optical radiation input of semiconductor lasers of various types into an integrated optical ion-exchange buried waveguide in glass was calculated using optical circuits based on spherical, hemi-cylindrical and hemispherical lenses. Calculations were made by using the method of ray tracing. The single-mode waveguide, used in calculations, is the glass (type K-8) waveguide, made by ion exchange with subsequent burying. The results of the calculations indicate a low efficiency of optical radiation input when using single lenses. The use of a pair of microlenses (collimating and focusing) makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of optical coupling, which is 79% for a VCSEL laser. Efficiency of input is limited by a sufficient low aperture of the glass waveguide itself - 0.12. For more precise simulations the race tracing method with wave correction was used. The wavelength of optical radiation for calculations is 1.3 micrometer. The use of a single spherical and cylindrical lens has the advantage for it’s simplicity, but will lead to a serious loss of power in the optical system and, correspondingly, an increase of signal attenuation. This is partly due to reason that when using a single cylindrical or spherical lenses, according to the geometry of the calculations, the optical radiation will not be focused at one point, and essential aberrations take place. Efficiency of coupling with the help of two lenses is limited at first, by numerical apertures mismatch and, at second, partial energy transfer to the rings of Airy disk. The ion-exchange waveguide is suitable for coupling with VCSEL lasers for application in planar waveguide concentrators, etc.
Keywords: integrated optics, optical waveguides, ion exchange in glass, VCSEL laser, ray tracing method, ZEMAX
Three batches of Co-MxOy / SiO2 catalysts were prepared with different methods of introducing an oxide additive. Physicochemical studies of catalysts by elemental analysis and Brunauer-Emmett-Taylor (BET) methods have been carried out. The effect of additives of oxide promoters and the method of their introduction on the specific surface, volume and pore sizes for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts were studied.
Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, carbon-containing resources, catalyst, active component, silicate carrier, Al2O3 and ZrO2 promoters, elemental analysis, BET method, surface area, volume and pore size
Using the methods of thermo-programmed reduction (TPV) and thermo-programmed hydrogen desorption (TPD H2), physico-chemical studies of Co-MxOy / SiO2 catalysts obtained by various methods of introducing a promoter additive were carried out. The effect of the introduction method and the nature of the promoting oxide additive on the properties of the active component of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts was studied.
Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, catalyst, active component, silicate carrier, Al2O3 and ZrO2 promoters, TPV and TPD H2 methods, crystallite size, degree of reduction, dispersity
The article deals with the theoretical substantiation and computer modeling of an optical vector spectrum analyzer based on asymmetric optical two-band modulation using a parallel two-channel Maha-Zehnder modulator. The proposed method and device make it possible to achieve twice the measurement range in comparison with the classical optical vector analyzer based on single-band modulation and to realize a simpler and more reliable configuration in comparison with the previously presented amplitude asymmetric optical vector analyzer with two sidebands. It can be possible to measure the frequency characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating with a width of up to 0.5 nm (60 GHz) with a resolution of up to 1 MHz (about 5-10 fm) using electrooptical modulators with a bandwidth of up to 30 GHz.
Keywords: optical spectrum analyzer, two-frequency modulation, frequency asymmetry, measurement range, fiber Bragg grating
The article is devoted to the increasing role of new operational methods of Express diagnosis of diesel engines equipped with modern fuel equipment with electronic control, which allow non-destructive testing of technical condition. The method of rapid diagnosis of diesel engines of automotive equipment equipped with an electronic fuel system. Thus, the developed method of rapid diagnosis using a multi-cycle auto scan and diagnostic kit "Tester CR" allows to determine the technical condition of all elements of the power system "Common Rail" for any diesel engine, where such a system is provided, without dismantling the fuel pump and EGF.
Keywords: Express diagnosis, technical diagnostics, fault, diesel, electronic control unit, fuel equipment, fuel pump, electro-hydraulic nozzle
The article considers a method of increasing the resolution of images in holographic systems based on subpixel shift algorithms. Methods of solving systems of equations of large dimension by reducing to block form are considered. The simplest solution is obtained when a set of matrices with an increased resolution is formed from a set of matrices with a shift in one direction, and then the resultant matrix is formed from the resulting set.
Keywords: super resolution, subpixel shift, holography, solution of systems of equations, holographic interferometry, aperture
The article demonstrates a computer model of a fiber-optic sensor implemented on the basis of a two-frequency optoelectronic generator (OEG) for measuring lateral pressure. In the loop of the optoelectronic generator, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a phase shift is applied to which a transverse pressure is applied to guide the birefringence and create two orthogonally polarized transparency windows, which leads to the generation of two optical frequencies. The difference frequency of the beats between the two optical frequencies lies in the microwave range and depends on the magnitude of the pressure applied to the FBG. It was modeled that the sensitivity and the minimum detectable pressure are ~ 10 GHz / (N / mm) and 2.5 × 104 (N / mm), respectively. The high frequency and stability of the generated microwave component of the optoelectronic generator provide an extremely reliable and highly accurate measurement. Frequency survey allows the system to operate at high speed. In addition, the measurements are insensitive to changes in the ambient temperature and the wavelength of the optical carrier.
Keywords: transverse pressure, fiber optic sensor, fiber Bragg grating with phase shift, birefringence, optoelectronic generator, two-frequency optical signal with microwave frequency difference frequency
Modelling and experimental research of narrow band filter on opposing rods was made. Center frequency is 1010 MHz. In the far zone the filter has blocking more than 100 dB. The pass band width on the Level minus 3 dB from the maximum is 13 MHz, and losses in the pass band are 8 dB.
Keywords: Filter on opposing rods, modelling, experiment, amplitude-frequency characteristics, pass band
Comfortable urban environment currently determines the economic development of the region as a whole, affects the socio-political situation, the rate of migration and investment. The analysis showed that the majority of municipalities have an imbalance in the factor space, which negatively affects the development of non-productive sectors of the economy and the main sectors of the economy. Open dialogue of the population with the city authorities allows to form the most effective methods on the way of creation of favorable regional climate, to make it competitive and to develop priority business directions.
Keywords: comfortable urban environment, competitiveness, population welfare, economic development, factor space
The article considers the possibility of constructing a formal negotiating model of the principal-agent, used to predict the behavior of subjects in the case of intra-firm management. To build such a model, we consider a number of necessary conditions and principles for the relationship between the principal and the agent, such as the common goal and various interests, the project is the interaction subject, the agents are active and form the maximum coalition, interaction and cooperation of principal and agents are based on democratic management style and collegial decision-making under uncertainty.
Keywords: organizational system, principal agent, negotiations, behavior modeling, OS goal, coordination of actions, resource theory, firm theory, incentive problem, contract theory, project life cycle, decision making uncertainty, maximum coalition of agents
This article presents a mathematical model of the distributed registry as a Queuing network. The main components of this network, as well as their formal representation are considered. The model of the peer-to-peer network is visualized, the vector of the network state is defined, and the restrictions of the state space are defined. After that, the laws of distribution of individual flows and service time were presented. In addition, the design elements of the infinitesimal matrix were determined. Based on the data obtained, a simulation model of this process was produced. For simulation, the Anylogic package was used. The results of simulation were analyzed and the most optimal parameters were selected.
Keywords: Queuing network, information security, distributed registries, computer science and engineering, mathematical modeling information system, corda
Was proposed method for structurally-parametric synthesis of control laws for n-order nonlinear objects with functional uncertainty on state and control. Moreover, control objects may have an unstable state of equilibrium, and their output matrix may contain right eigenvalues.The algorithm of structural synthesis of the proposed method is based on setting the law of derivative change n-th of state`s variable of synthesized automatic control system, applying of operator-parametric feedback on the calculated inversed undefined gain coefficient value of control object and usage an observer of state`s variables and of a compensating coupling on the deviation of the state`s vector of the synthesized and etalon system.
Keywords: plant, uncertainty, nonlinearity, law control, synthesis
The study aims to develop objective methods for ranking management decisions on risk management in the socio-economic system of the region. Insufficient development and adaptation of the existing methodological framework for risk management to the tasks of analyzing the directions of development of socio-economic systems and insufficient use of accessible tools for management decisions generates situations of imbalance in the involvement of natural labor and material resources in the region's reproductive process, violations of harmony, systemic unity, principles of maximizing effect and replenishment factors of production, which entails a threat of failure to meet the target strengthening conditions and the synergy of risks. The study examined sources and risk factors of regional development, types and stages of risk management, expert evaluation of management alternatives for economic, environmental and social risks, explored the possibility of adapting the verbal analysis methodology for ranking management decisions. As a result of the work, a method of formalized analysis of supporting situations is proposed, which, in the context of regional risk management, can provide objective estimates of the preferences of management alternatives.
Keywords: ranking procedure, management decision-making, socio-economic system, risk management, region
The issues of violations of the terms of delivery of goods on the railway network are considered. The main reasons for the violation of the delivery time are systematized on the example of the North Caucasian Railway. The North Caucasian Railway serves the ports of the Azov-Black Sea basin and the consignees of the Southern region. Over the past 10 years, the volume of loading of export cargoes to the ports of the Southern region has increased by more than 47%. Despite the relatively high reliability of cargo delivery, a negative trend in the increase in financial risks of the company RZD was noted. An analysis of the claim work was carried out, in connection with the violation of the delivery deadlines. The issues of speed and delivery of cargo and empty shipments at the North Caucasian Railway are considered. The main reasons for the arrival of goods with broken delivery dates were: the receipt of wagons with broken delivery dates at the joints of the road; Excessive availability of wagons to ports and port oil depots; an increase in the number of passenger trains in the summer. Mechanisms for managing the delivery time in rail transport on the basis of logistics and information technologies have been developed. Expansion of the zone of logistics management of railways traffic to ports based on the use of information systems that allow monitoring of operational work, identify problems of the road network, will reduce the load on the infrastructure of the port roads, fulfill all budgetary targets, and obtain additional profit.
Keywords: Analysis, delivery time, reliability of delivery, railway transport, seaport, financial risk, transport services, competitiveness
The analysis of reliability of systems of an electricity transmission during which the main causes of the power outage in the consumer were identified. With the help of computer simulation, the results of operation of autonomous inverters are obtained with different number of voltage levels. The prospects of using the devices for balancing the incomplete-phase regimes on the basis of multilevel voltage inverters, which improve the reliability of power supply to consumers, are considered.
Keywords: analysis, stream of the failure, electricity, the balancing device, emergency operation, recovery time, failure, reliability, multilevel inverter, power line, user
In this research work the analysis of the development of the concept of "smart cities" is carried out on the example of cities in Europe and Africa, also on Russian facilities. Based on the results of the research, the main principles affecting the formation and development of effective urban space are revealed. Also, the shortcomings that destroy the very concept of "smart city" were analyzed.
Keywords: smart city, innovative technologies, information systems, energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, transport equipment, urban space lighting, satellite cities, science cities.
The article is devoted to the study of the problem of determining the mechanical properties of vibrating centrifuged concrete with a combined aggregate and fibrous additive, which was basalt fiber. Experimentally obtained data on the optimal consumption of disperse fiber. The dependence of the strength properties of concrete with a combined aggregate on the amount of fiber additive added is graphically presented. Also graphically shows the increase in the speed of the passage of an ultrasonic wave in the body of concrete when determining the prismatic strength. It was found that the presence of porous particles in a concrete mixture facilitates the directed distribution of mineral fibers along the section of the concrete ring. This, in turn, leads to an increase in the fracture toughness of the material. The conclusion is made that the joint introduction of porous and fibrous additives into the concrete mix determines the production (at the same cement costs) of high-strength concretes with an increased crack resistance, as evidenced by the data on the displacement of the boundaries of microcracks formation in the direction of their increase.
Keywords: structures and products of annular section, centrifuged concrete, vibrocentrifuging, mechanical properties of vibrating centrifuged concrete, combined aggregate, fiber additive, basalt fiber, prismatic strength
The article is devoted to the study of foreign methods of waste processing and the use of secondary resources. The article also considers the peculiarities of the countries ' legislation in the field
Keywords: waste, secondary material resources, landscaping, recycling, electrical energy, solid residue, chemicals, leakproofness, incineration, filtration, organic, decomposition, recycling, energy efficiency, emission
The problems of road construction organization are considered. The issues of efficient and competent allocation of resources in the conditions of construction under continuous road maintenance are being studied. The issue of the construction of enclosing structures is raised to isolate sections and bands of high-speed and multi-lane highways
Keywords: organization of construction; the economy of construction, the history of architecture, the history of the construction industry
The method of parametric modeling and design based on the example of a building is studied, the architectural image of which is a set of circular helical and cylindrical surfaces defined by coordinates through functions of the corresponding surfaces in the SAPPHIRE software. Alternative methods for specifying surfaces in the SAPPHIRE PC, AutoCAD with subsequent export to the LIRA PC for engineering calculations of the frame of the building for various combinations of loads by the finite element method are presented. The object of the study is a 360-meter-high building with a hardness core in the form of a cylindrical shell of revolution. The height of the floor is 3 m. Around the rigid shell there are three circular helical surfaces that "rise" in a spiral upward along with the core of rigidity to a mark of 360 meters from the level of the ground floor. One of the most universal ways to create a surface is to specify it through a formula, because you can easily change the shape and appearance of the surface without manually editing the geometry of the model in the drawing. The development of the parametric architecture calls for the creation of new approaches to the calculation of unique buildings and structures, the improvement of software complexes that implement the finite element method, and the appearance of new varieties of finite elements with curvilinear boundaries.
Keywords: parametric architecture, surface, shape of the object, shell, curve, model, geometry, program, formula surface, helical surface
The advantages of using self-compacting concrete in the technology of precast reinforced constructions that are manufactured on stands with a travelling shuttering were considered. Considering the significant heat losses on the heating of products in this technology, concretes have been studied that harden at low temperatures. It was shown that self-compacting concretes with consumption of 330-450 kg / m3 gaining strength in compression of 20-35 MPa for 16-20 hours at low temperature heating.
Keywords: self-compacting concrete, stand technology, travelling shuttering, disperse filler, superplasticizer, heat treatment, strength
The article deals with the effectiveness of high-strength concrete for the design of concrete columns on the example of 20-storey residential building in Rostov-on-Don. The results of the ground floor columns calculations for different types of concrete strength are presented. The columns are presented in two variations. The first variation is 600x600 B25 from the second underground floor to the tenth floor and 500x500 B25 from the eleventh to twenty-fifth floor. The second one is 500x500 B60 from the second underground floor to the seventh floor, 400x400 B60 from the eighth to the eleventh and 400x400 B25 from the twelfth to the twentieth floor. The analysis of the study results showed the technical and economic efficiency of the use of high-strength concrete (in particular, concrete class B60) due to increasing the strength characteristics of the compressed elements. This is also due to reducing the cross-sectional size and weight of the columns, saving reinforcement, causing a reduction in the cost of elements as a whole.
Keywords: high-strength concrete, compressed elements, construction of tall buildings, columns, Lira-SAPR, calculation of structures
The solution of environmental problems of the modern city requires a systematic approach and should include measures for cleaning and protection of all environmental components of the city. As a part of the complex improvement, one of the most simple, inexpensive to implement and at the same time effective methods is to increase green areas of the city. The article deals with the spatial analysis technique of urban green spaces distribution density using modern geoinformation systems on the example of the city of Rostov-on-don. Spatial analysis is carried out in the software package ESRI ArcGIS 10.1. The result of the technique realization is the construction of an electronic map of the city's greenery distribution density, as well as the assessment of the environment quality by comparison with the electronic map of the habitat quality index for the estimated areas.
Keywords: geoinformation systems, GIS, spatial analysis, geostatistical analysis, landscaping, ecology, habitat quality index, electronic mapping, improvement of built-up areas, ecological living comfort