The method of calculating the coagulant dose using the technology of concentrated coagulation with the addition of air is given. The paper considers the peculiarities of using aluminum sulphate and aluminum polyoxychloride as a coagulant in different periods of the year, taking into account seasonal changes in water quality. Recommended values of parameters used in calculations of the coagulant dose during the year are given. The refined method of calculating the coagulant dose allows determining the weight dose of the reagent, including the mixed coagulant, taking into account the required air saturation of water, as well as the optimal volume of the so-called auxiliary water flow sent for concentrated coagulation.
Keywords: coagulant dose, aluminum sulphate, aluminum polyoxychloride, air saturation, concentrated coagulation, auxiliary flow, mixed coagulant
In the modern world, the question of using alternative energy sources is very acute, since mineral reserves can run out and the environmental damage from their use and processing is much greater than from renewable energy sources. Therefore, in the modern world, the use of renewable energy is gaining momentum.
Keywords: renewable energy sources, ecoenergy
The article deals with obtaining RDF fuel based on solid municipal waste. The expediency of using this type of fuel in the cement industry is justified, since its combustion in cement furnaces has less impact on the environment due to the high temperature level of the process. The composition of RDF fuel by elements is analyzed. Due to the fact that this fuel from different sources has a difference in the heat of combustion of two times or more, the heat of combustion of RDF fuel for the middle zone of Russia was experimentally determined and its compliance with GOST R 55127-2012.
Keywords: solid municipal waste, MSW, Recycle Derived Fuel, RDF fuel, lower combustion heat, ash content, alternative energy source, colorimetric bomb
This article discusses the features of technical operation of cultural heritage objects. The relevance of the topic is that cultural heritage objects, like any real estate objects, need constant measures to maintain the working condition, as well as to preserve consumer properties, and this action requires special attention and rational approaches. Guided by the guidelines for the operation of cultural heritage objects of the peoples of the Russian Federation, the owner or other legal owner of the cultural object must comply with the requirements of regulatory documents for the preservation of the object in order to increase its service life. Thanks to a comprehensive approach to improving the method of restoration of objects of historical and architectural significance, it is possible to increase the interest of tourists to cultural objects and ensure their safety.
Keywords: Object of cultural heritage, operation, operating costs, quality, timeliness, impact, safety, defect, repair, rationality, activities, working condition
The article considers examples of cities with a linear-elongated configuration. Issues of air pollution are considered, examples of components of pollutants coming from stationary and mobile sources are given. Statistical data on human diseases in the Volgograd region for the period 2008-2017 are presented. Considers the issues of monitoring for the city of Volgograd.
Keywords: linear city, highway, pollution, carbon monoxide, monitoring, monitoring posts, disease statistics, combined action, vehicles, noise, gas pollution, health, exhaust gases, length
This article discusses the possibility of using water wells for water supply of rice irrigation systems. The aim of the study of this work is to study the prospects for the possible use of water wells for irrigation of flood fields of the Krasnodar Territory. This issue has been studied by the example of a water well, which is located in the village of the Black Sea Seversky district of the Krasnodar Territory. The relevance of the study of this issue is expressed in the fact that of all types of agricultural nature management in the Krasnodar Territory, one of the most important types is rice growing. Naturally, in the field of rice production, irrigation sources play an important role, which, in our opinion, include water wells. The relevance of this study is associated with the importance of the production of rice groats, as one of the most important types of agricultural nature management in the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Adygea. Irrigation sources are of great importance in the field of rice growing, which consists in the fact that for the irrigation of flood fields, a large amount of water is required, providing a favorable environment for rice growth. At the same time, the quality of rice cultivated directly depends on the qualitative characteristics of the water resources used for rice systems. The value of irrigation sources is that a favorable environment for the cultivation of rice groats is created by water resources, which are used in large quantities for irrigation of rice fields. Water resources used for irrigation of flood fields have a direct impact on the quality of rice cereal, which is grown on irrigated fields. In this regard, there is a need to conduct a study of water resources extracted from water wells for their compliance with sanitary norms and rules, the results of which will be considered in this paper.
Keywords: siltation, reservoir, water resources, floodplain territories, rational water use, water resources
The paper reveals the problem and causes of the formation of fetid compounds in the systems of transportation and wastewater treatment. Various methods used at the moment to eliminate and neutralize unpleasant odors, as well as a number of measures to clean the air from fetid compounds are considered. A new method is described to prevent the formation of odors of fetid compounds in wastewater transportation and treatment systems and a device for its implementation using low-intensity cavitation. The scheme of the device for sewage treatment from smells of fetid compounds. The principle of operation of this installation is described.
Keywords: fetid compounds , air purification, biological purification, low-intensity cavitation
The results of the development of a polymer fire-resistant heat-insulating coating containing waste from electrochemical production for thermal insulation of hot metal surfaces of industrial equipment and building structures, working surfaces of pipelines are presented. The coating is developed on the basis of acrylic binder, hollow carbon microspheres, antifoam, pigment and flame retardant based on waste electrochemical production - galvanic sludge. The use of hollow carbon microspheres as a filler in the amount of 14.0 to 38.0 wt. including reduces the thermal conductivity of the coating, and the use as a flame retardant additive, pre-dried and finely ground galvanic sludge in an amount of 5 to 15 wt. h., gives the cured heat-insulating coating fire-resistant properties. Studies have shown that the use of this composition allows you to get a polymer heat-insulating coating with good physico-mechanical and flame retardant properties, while another problem is solved - the safe disposal of galvanic sludge.
Keywords: polymer heat-insulating coating, waste from electrochemical production, flame retardant, hollow carbon microspheres, galvanic sludge, fire resistance, safe disposal
The problem of managing municipal solid waste (hereinafter referred to as MSW) is annually complicated, due to the increase in the mass / volume of generated waste, the transformation of its composition and properties, the lack of economic resources in many countries for processing the bulk of the waste, and other reasons. The largest amount of MSW is generated and accumulated in residential and public buildings of various amenities and purposes, in enterprises, on the streets, in courtyards. Untimely disposal and disposal can lead to significant environmental pollution (hereinafter referred to as OS). One of the main stages of MSW management is waste collection. Therefore, the article presents a solution to the urgent problem of improving the environmental safety of urban areas with the aim of further using waste for energy supply based on the choice of an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient engineering system for collecting MSW.
Keywords: municipal solid waste, municipal services, waste management system, municipal solid waste collection, environmentally friendly waste collection, energy-efficient waste collection, environmentally friendly and energy-efficient engineering waste collection
The air basin of cities is subject to significant pollution, including waste gases of power plants. However, they are a necessary element of the life support system of urban areas and cannot be taken outside the city. Therefore, the problem of proper selection of structural elements and operational characteristics of the process and system for reducing air pollution becomes very important. Our scheme of transformation of pollutants within the framework of the physical and energy approach allows to determine possible types of effects on gaseous pollutants, to control their behavior in order to reduce stability and, ultimately, to reduce pollution of the air basin.
Keywords: energetic installations, exhaust gas purification, forced dispersion, gaseous polluting aerosol, property parameters, energy parameters, stability of polluting aerosol
This article discusses the possibility of managing environmental and economic risks of investment projects. Environmental efficiency is an important indicator in assessing the effectiveness of an investment project. It is revealed that when assessing the environmental efficiency of an investment project, it is necessary to use the established standards and agreements, normative legal acts in the field of environmental law. However, the legislation in the Russian Federation in the field of environmental risk assessment requires accurate calculations that will facilitate the task of the investor in the field of adoption of an effective investment project. It is analyzed that the final decision on the implementation of the project depends on the quality of the assessment.
Keywords: Efficiency, investment, risk, uncertainty, investment project, ecology, factor, criterion, implementation
The article considers the main sources of urban air pollution. The growth dynamics of vehicles in the city of Volgograd is shown. The law of the distribution of the concentration of carbon monoxide for a different category of roads (urban, regional and local values), both for the measured and calculated concentration of CO, is derived. It is shown that the concentration of CO on the curb of the roadway of different categories of highways is characterized by a mixed Gaussian distribution.
Keywords: carbon monoxide, category of highways, city significance, regional significance, local significance, main sources of pollution, primary areas, mixed Gaussian distribution, field studies, density function
The article is devoted to solving the current problem - improving the environmental safety of cities by using the specific functions of green plantations in the formation of the green frame belt. Analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing methodological approaches to formation of "green frames" of cities allowed to systematize, select and scientifically justify estimated criteria taking into account climatic conditions, landscape, impact of anthropogenic factors, efficiency of creation of comfortable habitat and to develop methodology of formation and selection of "green frame" belt of cities.
Keywords: Greening of territories, "green frame" of the city, "green frame" core, "green frame" belt, urban forests, method of formation and selection of "green frame" belt
To assess the impact of various groups of sources of emissions in urban pollution, there is a method that can be called the main one - the assessment of the contribution to total gross emissions. But this method does not take into account the significant features of dispersion of pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, as well as the specifics of the mechanisms of formation of concentrations of pollutants at a specific point in the city and the calculation of complex indicators of the level of air pollution in urban areas. The authors proposed a procedure for calculating the atmospheric pollution index for source groups using the “summary calculations” tool. The calculations were carried out on the licensed software product "Ecologist-city". Based on the calculations, conclusions were drawn on the reliability of determining the influence of various groups of emission sources on air pollution in the city of Krasnoyarsk, based on the assessment of contributions to the total gross emission in the city.
Keywords: atmosphere, air, ecology, ecology of urban areas, environmental safety, summary calculations, IZA
The results of the development of a polymer coating with high heat-insulating and fire-resistant characteristics containing waste from galvanic production are presented. This coating is designed for thermal insulation and fire protection of concrete and metal surfaces of various building structures and industrial equipment. The coating is developed on the basis of siloxane rubber, K-18 catalyst, hollow carbon microspheres and industrial waste - galvanic sludge used as a flame retardant. The use of hollow carbon microspheres provides an increase in the strength and thermal insulation properties of the coating. The use of galvanic slurry in the amount of 5-15 parts by weight it allows to obtain the effect of self-extinguishing of the heat-insulating coating, reducing the burning time without compromising the operational properties - strength, adhesion, while solving another important problem - the safe disposal of galvanic sludge. Studies have shown that the use of this composition allows you to get a relatively inexpensive, but quite effective polymer coating with good thermal insulation, flame retardant and physico-mechanical properties.
Keywords: polymer coating, siloxane rubber, hollow carbon microspheres, galvanic sludge, thermal conductivity, strength, self-extinguishing effect, safe disposal
The article proposes a method of automatic recognition of the type of building for an environmental monitoring system. based on convolutional neural networks. To train the neural network, the Keras library was chosen, containing numerous implementations of the main components of neural networks, such as layers, target and transfer functions, optimizers, and many tools to simplify working with images and text. The processes of network implementation using the Google Colab cloud platform, the preparation of a training set, the training of a constructed neural network, and its testing during training are described. The result of this work is a convolutional neural network model, capable of determining with accuracy of the order of 90-92 percent what type of buildings is shown on the cartographic image, which allows us to automate this process and use it as a subsystem for the environmental monitoring system of atmospheric air.
Keywords: environmental monitoring system for air, building type recognition, convolutional neural networks, machine learning, computer vision
The article touches on the relevance of the problem of ecology in the world, considers a way to improve the microclimate of the city and individual buildings, residential and public, by using vertical gardening. The main advantages of vertical landscaping of facades are given: increasing the sound insulation of premises, improving the microclimate, reducing the energy consumption of the building, as well as taking into account the process of photosynthesis itself, which supplies the environment with oxygen, and the absorption of harmful emissions by plants. The most striking examples of "green" architecture in the world are given:"Vertical forest" in Milan and "Nanjing Green Towers", as well as the use of a new way to" revive " the environment in Russia and the introduction of regulatory documents regulating environmental requirements for real estate.
Keywords: landscaping, ecology, vertical gardening, high-rise building, eco-friendly skyscraper, aesthetics, "vertical forest"," green " architecture, phytostain, phytocartin, rating system for assessing the sustainability of the environment
The possibility of increasing the reliability of assessing air pollution through the use of probabilistic methods is shown. Evaluation of quality indicators on a quantitative basis made it possible to find an error of the first and second kind in assessing the quality of the atmosphere. Based on the Bayesian approach, dependencies were obtained for estimating and predicting atmospheric pollution in the area of a city that does not have a stationary post, based on data from stationary posts in other areas.
Keywords: atmosphere quality, reliability of the estimate, probabilistic methods, quantitative characteristic, error of the first and second kind, Bayesian approach, a priori probability, posterior probability, likelihood of a quantity
The equations of multiple regression of air quality from factors affecting external sources of emission in the urban environment are obtained. A prototype of a forced air supply ventilation valve with air purification, placed in the outer wall of the building, using various sorbents together with a photocatalytic filter (a thin porous plate coated with titanium dioxide next to two UV lamps, UV-A range, 365 nm, 6 W each) was developed. Full-scale studies of five options for purifying the supply air were carried out. High quality of outdoor air purification from pollutants has the following options: shungite; zeolite; silica gel; photocatalytic filter, its purification efficiency was 96.39-99.98% for carbon oxide (II), 96.39-97.89% for phenol, 95.76-97.78% for formaldehyde, and 93.97-95.12% for aliphatic hydrocarbons (C1-C5). The results obtained can be used in multi-storey construction.
Keywords: forced air supply valve, prototype, pollutants, sorbent, shungite, zeolite, silica gel, photocatalytic filter
A review of odorizing substances in natural waters is carried out. The stages at which odorizing substances can be introduced into water are considered. The characteristic of odorizing substances introduced at each stage of water treatment is given. The sources of drinking water odorants are systematized in relation to the stages of water treatment and by type of origin. Methods for determining odorants in raw water are reviewed. The threshold sensations, the type of smell and the chemical formula of some odorizing substances are given.
Keywords: natural water treatment, water deodorization, odorants, water treatment, carbohydrate water, surface water sources
The article is devoted to the issue of improving the environmental safety of highly urbanized territories. The article presents the results of field measurements of pollutants into the atmosphere from gas stations within the urbanized territories of cities of the Russian Federation. The largest part of the allocation of oil product vapors entering the local aspiration systems is associated with the operations of filling and emptying fuel storage tanks at gas stations. The results of field measurements of the values of hydrocarbon concentrations obtained on the basis of the values of maximum permissible concentrations of ingredients are presented. The conclusion is drawn on the feasibility of environmental protection measures to reduce emissions when finding housing in the border area of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ) of gas stations. To reduce emissions from gas station sources, it was proposed to equip the gas aspiration system of the gas feeling tank with an improved design of the absorption device. In order to reduce waste generation as a working agent in such devices, it was proposed to use wastewater with a certain amount of oil products from a local gas station treatment device. This approach also allows to reduce the negative anthropogenic impact of gas stations in terms of the formation of additional amounts of waste generated during their operation. Successful tests have shown reliable and efficient operation of the pilot plant with the proposed apparatus.
Keywords: gas station, gasoline, emission, atmosphere, concentration, hydrocarbons, aspiration, reservoir, pollution, oil product, pollution, water
he article presents the results of evaluating the ability of activated sludge, saturated with anammox bacteria, to adapt to mesophilic and lower temperature operating conditions. As the main temperature regimes, temperatures of 30, 25, 15, and 13 ° C were selected. The system showed stable operation at temperatures up to 15 ° С with the highest degree of purification with respect to ammonium nitrogen - 0.33 mg / dm3. At the same time, the concentration of nitrites taking into account forced nitritation reached 0.07 mg / dm3. An additional increase in the efficiency of the system requires structural changes in the adopted technological scheme of the bioreactor, however, the introduction of an internal recirculation system of attached biomass (with load) inside the anammox department is considered as an essential element of the system that ensures stability
Keywords: nitrification, denitrification, activated sludge, aeration tank, anammox, biological treatment, domestic wastewater, low-oxygen treatment method, energy saving, resource saving, ecology
The article considers the results of development of water treatment technology for household drinking water in Semey, presents a comparative analysis of widely used disinfectants, and considers technological schemes for water disinfection with chlorine dioxide and a combined disinfectant " chlorine dioxide and chlorine".
Keywords: household drinking water, disinfectants, chlorine
The article addresses issues related to the definition of particulate matter characteristics in the air of roadside areas. Fine suspended solid particles (TPM) of different size -10 and 2.5 μm are one of the main characteristics of atmospheric air quality. When monitoring the air environment on the maintenance of the firm weighed particles two indicators are used and normalized: PM2.5, PM10 are the firm weighed particles (English Particulate Matter, PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microns or less; Solid suspended particles with aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less. Dust particles from traffic are seen as an increasingly important source of air pollution, as the vehicle fleet is increasing worldwide, hence exhaust gas emissions, as well as particles from tire abrasion and road surface wear. Studies were carried out on the dust content of the roadside territories of the city of Volgograd. The article also pays attention to air quality indices, which will be used in monitoring the air environment of urban areas.
Keywords: motor transport, dust, road dust, the firm weighed particles, PM2.5, PM10, the atmosphere, the air environment, ecology, ecology of the urbanized territories, environmental safety
An important problem of modern ecology is air pollution for most cities. Studies show that the largest danger to the human body is particles up to 10 microns in size, therefore, the content of suspended solids PM10 and PM2.5 (concentration) is controlled. The article presents the results of studies of air pollution with fine dust in the winter season
Keywords: dust, dispersed materials, suspended solids, PM2.5, PM10, atmosphere, air, ecology, ecology of urban areas, environmental safety