A comparative analysis was made of the evolution of the development of facade glazing systems in the design of public buildings both abroad and in Russia. It has been established that both abroad and in Russia are characterized by the appearance of buildings with continuous glazing, the production of glass and double-glazed windows of a new generation: with magnetron application of heat-reflecting coatings and with energy-saving characteristics. The shape, size, placement of the glazed surfaces of the facade were determined by the climatic conditions, economic and scientific-technical development of the countries.
Keywords: Facade glazing, translucent facades, Bauhaus, Le Corbusier, stained glass, cold-formed glass, cold facade, exhaust facade, external natural factors
In recent years, competition has increased among leading universities for leadership. The competition affects the architectural environment of the university campus. So what trends have helped to shape university campuses in recent years? 1.Starchitecture. Contemporary Campus Design(2018), universities continue to be drawn by the allure of the world-renowned architects known as the “starchitects”. 2. Adaptive reuse– a model that, according to its advocates, can be more environmentally friendly and cost-effective and is far more sensitive to the local landscape. 3. Sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment. “The greenest building is the one that’s already built”, but a desire to build sustainably is still a huge influence on the creation of new university structures. 4. Shared use. One way to address the underuse of university buildings is by sharing them with other organisations. This can help to save money and reduce the university’s carbon footprint. 5. Informal, flexible learning spaces. The shift away from lecture theatres is a definite trend. Online learning is transforming the spaces that universities are building. There is noting a rise in student demand for “hub buildings”, which “comprise informal learning spaces, social spaces, IT facilities, dining areas and counselling [services]” 6. The allure of the city- a city centre location looks increasingly desirable to universities intent on satisfying the demands of students. According to the authors of the article, the use of the above principles in the design of campuses will increase their competitiveness.
Keywords: educational campus, educational space, adaptive use, reuse, ecological rationality, innovation, modern architecture, restoration, multipurpose space, city