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  • Investigation of the possibility of using different types of interferometers in an automated control system for Earth orientation devices

    The article discusses the requirements for automated control systems in the production of Earth orientation devices. Various types of interferometers are analyzed for use in an automated control system for the manufacture of optical instruments for orientation of spacecraft on the Earth. An overview of the most common interferometer models is given, the characteristics and features of their schemes, development trends and manufacturers are discussed in detail. A comparison was made of the parameters of a number of imported and domestic interferometers suitable for use in an automated control system. The advantages and disadvantages of interferometers according to the schemes of Jamen, Mach-Zehnder, Sagnac, Michelson and Fizeau are considered. The Jamen interferometer was invented for the first time in 1856, to measure small refractive indices of gases. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer was developed on a similar principle, its main feature is that the beams of the rays obtained can be separated at a sufficiently large distance using a semitransparent mirror. In 1913, the Sagnac interferometer was invented; in its design, the light is divided by a semitransparent plate-divider into two beams, which propagate in a circle and are reduced by mirrors back to the divider. Albert Michelson in 1890 proposed an interferometer scheme, the basis of which is a light-splitting mirror. One of the most common is the Fizeau interferometer scheme, proposed in 1868. In this type of device, interference occurs in the gap between two reflecting surfaces. Based on the parameters of the problem under study, the choice in favor of the interferometer configuration according to the Fizeau scheme is justified. Interferometer OptoTL-60/125 from LLC "Optical laboratory" meets all the requirements.

    Keywords: automated control system, laser interferometer, Fizeau interferometer, optics, photonics, optical production, interferometry

  • The research energy consumption in a stepper motor model

    The article describes the simulation in the Simulink environment of the operation of a stepper motor used as an electric drive of the scanning mechanism for the Earth orientation device. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum power consumption in each range of values for inductance and resistance. If the model is found to be inoperable above certain values of the specified parameters, the measurement range narrows to an area where there is enough energy to properly work out a given angle. The simulation is based on the parameters of NEMA17 engines, in particular, NEMA 17HS3410. Voltage control in the system is carried out by means of a PI controller, the influence of the regulator on the energy consumption of the system is shown. The regularities of the formation of angular velocity of various amplitudes when working out a turn in open and closed control systems are noted. The range of electrical parameters at which the engine operates with almost the same power consumption is determined. The lowest power values at which the engine is operable are found. The results of the work are visualized in the form of three-dimensional surfaces, recommendations for the continuation of research are developed.

    Keywords: stepper motor, simulation, Earth orientation device, power consumption

  • Modeling the output amplifier of a photodetecting device

    Recognition of radiation from celestial bodies by technical means is an important task in the orientation of spacecraft. For a device that is part of the Earth orientation device, a variant of modeling an electronic signal amplifier received from a pyroelectric sensor is studied. On the recommendation of the developers, the properties of trans-impedance operational amplifiers were studied, and suitable coefficients for the negative feedback circuit were selected. The type of output signal of the model is studied in comparison with the recording of values taken from a real photodetector. The preferred design of the model in the Matlab Simulink environment is shown – a model defined by an electrical circuit using the Simscape Electrical library.

    Keywords: simulation of electric circuits, space orientation, photodetecting device, transimpedance amplifier, optoelectronic devices, space instrumentation

  • Trends in the development of information technologies in the housing and utilities sector

    The paper discusses the main trends in the development of information technologies in the housing and utilities sector. The main direction of development of energy and water accounting systems is energy efficiency, which is achieved either through the materials used or through constructive solutions. Automated systems for commercial accounting of energy resources (AMR) allow you to combine disparate data from metering devices and transfer them to information processing centers. The use of AMR allows you to keep records of consumed resources, monitor leaks and losses, accumulate data for further processing and forecasting, as well as generate data arrays for the application of BigData technology and neural networks. In Russia, the data collector is the GIS utilities system. In the future, ASCME will become part of the organizational and technical concept of Industry 4.0.

    Keywords: measuring circuits, metering devices, Internet of Things, AMR, BigData, neural network

  • Overview of the types and parameters of gas consumption meters used in automated energy accounting systems

    This paper provides an overview of the types of existing natural gas consumption meters. A comparison is made of the instruments of various manufacturers present on the market. The main characteristics of the counters are named, the definitions for each characteristic are given. The problem of temperature compensation of flow rate depending on the temperature of the working medium is considered. The error in measuring gas at temperature differences leads to difficulties in predicting the consumption of energy resources. Two existing approaches to the solution of the problem are given. The ways of solution for the task of including metering devices in unified automated energy accounting systems are also shown.

    Keywords: flowmeters of natural gas, diaphragm counters, automated metering systems, energy resources, thermal correction