The authors have developed a device consisting of a system of perception of images of printed characters and a personal computer (PC), which determines the types of characters. According to the program developed by the authors, the PC contours the image of the printed symbol in a rectangular matrix consisting of the cells of the PC's storage device. As a result of the edging of the shape of the printed symbol, essential and necessary signs were determined - the directions of the elements of the shape of the symbol, according to which, using the developed algorithm, the PC determined the type of this symbol relative to others. The perception system includes a small-sized television tube - a vidicon with a generator of sweeps of a vidicon beam on its screen vertically and horizontally, two channels and a coincidence circuit. The developed system of perception is distinguished by: simplicity of design, compactness, efficiency.
Keywords: direction, perception system, trigger, amplifier, pulse counter, coincidence circuit
Modern development of x-ray technology allows to conduct a detailed study of multiphoton processes of absorption and scattering of x-ray photon by deep and subvalent shells of molecular systems in a wide range of energies. The specifics of solving the problem of interaction of an x-ray photon with a multiatomic system requires the use of a single-center approach to the calculation of the electronic States of molecules. The main disadvantage of this approach is a decrease in the accuracy of the calculation of spectroscopic quantities with limited consideration of the terms of the single-center decomposition of the molecular orbital. The paper studies the effect of accounting for higher harmonics of single-center molecular orbital decomposition on the calculation of the energy characteristics of molecular systems. The analysis of the parameters of the single-center decomposition of the functions of the nuclear ligand, depending on its charge. The criteria for inclusion of higher harmonics of single-center decomposition of atomic ligand functions in the molecular orbital are determined. The calculation of energy characteristics is performed on the example of diatomic molecules HF, LiF and BF. The selected series of molecules makes it possible to study the behavior of higher harmonics of the single-center decomposition of the molecular orbital depending on the growth of the atomic ligand charge.
Keywords: molecular orbital, single-center decomposition, higher harmonics, a nuclear ligand, the energy of the electronic state of a diatomic molecule
The article is devoted to the problem of theoretical research and development of perovskite-based solar cells to optimize their design and increase efficiency. The paper presents a numerical simulation of the transfer and accumulation of charge carriers in the planar p – i – n heterostructure of a solar cell. The simulation is based on a stationary physico-topological model based on the diffusion-drift system of semiconductor equations. The efficiency of solar cells for different perovskite film thickness was obtained. It has been established that the maximum efficiency of the optimized design of a solar cell is about 27% with a perovskite film thickness of 500-700 nm and a defect concentration in it of the order of 1012 cm-3.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, solar cell, perovskite, film thickness, defect concentration, current-voltage characteristic
The results of the analysis of the functional completeness of ten intelligent video Analytics systems are presented. It is shown how the video Analytics systems selected for comparison have similarities or differences in the criterion of functional completeness. The paper analyzes whether they contain the most typical video detectors and what additional video Analytics functions each of the compared systems has. It is shown how it is possible to estimate as far as functional completeness of this or that system corresponds to requirements of the user.
Keywords: intelligent video surveillance, video Analytics, specialized videodetector, intelligent analysis of video analysis of functional completeness, a formal analysis of the degree of similarity systems, a measure of similarity of Jacquard, Earl of superiority,
This article deals with the problem of determining the cost of renting real estate. The idea of minimizing the absolute error function using artificial neural networks is substantiated. Particular attention is paid to the process of determining the input data of the neural network. In particular, the problems of determining such parameters as the improvement of the region and premises. The article clarifies the features of determining the weight coefficients to determine the technical equipment of the room using a genetic algorithm. A model of neural network architecture is proposed. The model of change of weight coefficients is described. As a result, the model was tested on test data, and the model of data correction taking into account price dynamics was described.
Keywords: neural network, data mining, data analysis, real estate rental, regression, genetic algorithm, Informatics, machine learning, cost estimation, modeling, extrapolation
The paper considers an adaptive on-off regulator. A block diagram of this device is given, and the sequence of operation of the blocks is also described. Simulation modeling of various types of on-off regulators was carried out in order to identify their effectiveness.
Keywords: automation, adaptive regulation, regulators, simulation
The proposed article provides a generalized model of the hydraulic system of a drilling rig during the beginning of the introduction of the drilling tool into the ground. The oscillograms of the parameters of the motor in time are shown, obtained using a computational experiment in the Matlab program. Using this model, it is possible to estimate the transient processes of the hydraulic drive at the system design stage. The above formulas describe the parameters of the hydraulic system, determine the pressure at the pump outlet, the inlet to the throttled resistance and the input channel of the motor. Changing the input characteristics of the system allows you to monitor the behavior of the system in different situations and under different loads.
Keywords: mathematical model, hydraulic system of a drilling rig, work dynamics, transients
In This study posed the problem of simulating the cooling system of supercomputers with a heat pump on the reverse Stirling cycle by numerical modeling of heat transfer processes in the object under study. The article presents the results of numerical simulation of heat transfer processes in the cooling system of processors of supercomputers with a heat pump on the reverse Stirling cycle. A numerical model of the heat transfer process was investigated. Using the method of numerical simulation of the heat transfer process, the dependences of the temperature delta, thermal resistance and the fraction of losses of the heat pump of the cooling system are obtained. The dependence of the ratio of the stroke of the piston to the diameter of the piston H / D of the heat pump has been revealed, taking into account the loss of the thermal resistance of the liquid cooling circuits and the elements of the design of the heat pump.
Keywords: processor, heat flow, thermal resistance, Laplace equation, heat pump, heat exchange, Stirling backflow, cooling system
The article presents a detailed analysis of the structure of the model of management of the hematopoietic functional system of the body in various physiological situations, which activates the activity of a certain adaptive circuit that characterizes the functional state. The first state and adaptation to the contour of the functional hematopoietic system of the body included in the work are considered in detail. The structural equation of adaptation of the first contour is made. It is concluded that the equation of adaptation compiled for a hypothetical control model adaptation, in the actual state of Affairs raises a number of inconsistencies with the hypothetical implementation-related deviations from the ideal parameters of functioning: autonomic nervous system, internal environment, metabolic state, the processes of transmitting the control actions. All these deviations affect the observed realization of the set of blood form elements (RSBE).
Keywords: physiological model of functional hematopoietic system, the adaptive circuit, the space of external influences, categorical diagram, adaptation processes, gemondo-nuclear level, functino mapping, homomorphic mapping, the equation of adaptation
A program has been developed that allows to evaluate the adhesion of paint coatings by means of analyzing images of the surface of coatings with delamination’s from the substrate to be protected. The program is written in Kotlin using JavaFX platform and is focused on tests carried out by the method of lattice cuts within the conditions of paint and varnish production. Through the work the evaluation of the area of the coating detachment from the surface to be protected is being held and the obtained result is scored by points according to the method of lattice cuts. The use of the program does not require a large computing power of the computer and reduces the time for obtaining the calculating results for one sample from 20 minutes to 3 seconds.
Keywords: adhesion, lacquer coatings, notch method, Kotlin language, JavaFX
The article shows the possibility of describing complex objects with parallel functioning components in the form of structures built on the basis of neural networks. The neural network is represented by an operator matrix, that is, a formal description that gives a universal way to solve many non-standard control problems. Matrix apparatus is shown to significantly improve the efficiency of the method compared to previously known. It is concluded that the representation of the neural network by the operator matrix provides a universal way to solve the problems of transport and information flows management; neuron-like systems based on such representation of the neuron are able to catch complex nonlinear relationships, self-improvement, learning in the process of use. Their use provides ample opportunities for finding and implementing effective solutions to the problems of management and control of flows
Keywords: graph, parallelism, transport and information flow, neural network, synaptic weight, predicate, activation function, operator matrix, neuron, complex systems
The article is devoted to modeling the operation of a piezoelectric generator (PEG) in the form of a round bimorph plate with two piezoactive layers and an inertial mass. The considered PEG can serve as an element of the energy storage device, as a source of electrical energy obtained from the vibrations of structural elements and machines. The bending axisymmetric oscillations of a composite elastic and electroelastic body are considered in a linear formulation, taking into account the dissipation of mechanical and electrical energy. The problem is solved using the finite element method (FEM) in ACELAN. Statement of the problem simulates the fixation of PEG in a moving structure. A modal analysis of the device was carried out, the first frequencies of resonance, antiresonance, and electromechanical coupling coefficient were found. Next, the problem of forced harmonic oscillations at the first antiresonance frequency is solved and the output electric potential is determined. The dependences of the output characteristics of PEG on its geometrical parameters are constructed.
Keywords: piezoelectric generator, energy storage, electric potential, finite element method
This paper presents a mathematical model of an electro-hydraulic vibratory exciter used for vibration testing of steel piles on coral reefs. Based on this model of electro-hydraulic vibrator, we have built characteristic curves to evaluate the stability of the system, the quality of the transition process, as well as parameters - amplitude, frequency. The research results are the scientific basis for design of electro-hydraulic vibratory exciter for vibration testing of steel piles in the coral foundation.
Keywords: vibration exciter, electro-hydraulic vibrator, frequency
The article is devoted to the actual problem of increasing the complexity of user passwords in systems with remote access to increase their information security. It proposes a method based on the integrated application of the input characters of the password and the time intervals between them. In the article, using the inhibitor time network Petri, a model of a dynamic password setting process was constructed, on its basis the process of forming a reference image and user authentication is described. The above calculations of increasing the complexity of the password prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: authentication, password, dynamic process, Petri net, complexity, password retrieval
The computer technology for precious metals examination by method of colorimetry aided with auxiliary chemical reaction is created and investigated. The essentially new practical and methodical novation allowing to shift some orders lower the bottom limit of a measuring range is offered, the theoretical basis for micro- and macroanalysis computer technology is established. Experimentally confirmed, that with the help of new technique it is possible to detect micro probes of silver, gold, platinum and palladium about 10-9 g. It is acceptable to use the proposed technology for quantitative estimation of other substances representing interest in this or that area of expertise.
Keywords: examination, macroanalysis, microanalysis, colorimetry, computer technologies
Frequency divider based on linear logic is considered. The circuit design concept is based on current mirrors, that provide low dependence from supply voltage. The circuit design of frequency divider and results of simulation on 0.25 um CMOS technology are presented. Additionally, advantages in controlling current consumption and output voltages by changing the value of the reference resistor are shown.
Keywords: frequency divider, current logic, linear algebra
The efficiency of optical radiation input of semiconductor lasers of various types into an integrated optical ion-exchange buried waveguide in glass was calculated using optical circuits based on spherical, hemi-cylindrical and hemispherical lenses. Calculations were made by using the method of ray tracing. The single-mode waveguide, used in calculations, is the glass (type K-8) waveguide, made by ion exchange with subsequent burying. The results of the calculations indicate a low efficiency of optical radiation input when using single lenses. The use of a pair of microlenses (collimating and focusing) makes it possible to significantly increase the efficiency of optical coupling, which is 79% for a VCSEL laser. Efficiency of input is limited by a sufficient low aperture of the glass waveguide itself - 0.12. For more precise simulations the race tracing method with wave correction was used. The wavelength of optical radiation for calculations is 1.3 micrometer. The use of a single spherical and cylindrical lens has the advantage for it’s simplicity, but will lead to a serious loss of power in the optical system and, correspondingly, an increase of signal attenuation. This is partly due to reason that when using a single cylindrical or spherical lenses, according to the geometry of the calculations, the optical radiation will not be focused at one point, and essential aberrations take place. Efficiency of coupling with the help of two lenses is limited at first, by numerical apertures mismatch and, at second, partial energy transfer to the rings of Airy disk. The ion-exchange waveguide is suitable for coupling with VCSEL lasers for application in planar waveguide concentrators, etc.
Keywords: integrated optics, optical waveguides, ion exchange in glass, VCSEL laser, ray tracing method, ZEMAX
This article analyzes the regularities of precipitation of solid colloidal particles of hydrated metal oxides on the surface of various substrates. Two models of this process are proposed. The proposed α-model is a process of continuous nucleation of interaction centers, at random points of a free surface throughout the process. The proposed β-model provides for the instantaneous nucleation of these centers when they are randomly distributed over the entire surface of the substrate. Based on the proposed models, the average values of the following values are calculated: the thickness of the gel film; its roughness and specific surface area. The calculations carried out in the article showed that these parameters are universal functions of the degree of filling of the surface and do not depend on the specific model of the mechanism of the process.
Keywords: modeling, homogeneous precipitation, formation of thin films, sorbents, catalysts, heat-resistant composites
To ensure the stability of the galvanic deposition process and the high quality of the precipitate obtained, it is necessary to know the dependence of all processes on technological factors and modes. The degree of influence of technological factors on the behavior of machine parts made of gray iron, etching and deposition of zinc electroplating is not the same, so there is a need for electrochemical studies in the laboratory. The methodology of such studies has a General orientation and particular conditions in each case. The article describes in detail the method of electrochemical studies of gray cast iron in the sulfuric acid electrolyte of galvanizing during the restoration of machine parts by galvanic deposition of zinc coating. The basic conditions necessary for obtaining reliable comprehensive results that will determine the optimal conditions for galvanizing machine parts made of gray cast iron are considered.
Keywords: technological factor, electrochemical studies, polarization curves, electrochemical cell, electrode, potentiostat
The article presents information about the training program "Use of information technologies in engineering, scientific, administrative and management activities", developed within the framework of the project of the "Engineering open public forum of scientific and technological activities, social and technological entrepreneurship "rozmys", which is carried out using the grant of the President of the Russian Federation for the development of civil society, provided by the presidential grants Fund. The program is intended for a wide range of engineers and specialists of industrial enterprises, scientists, research engineers, University professors, specialists in the field of administrative and management activities. In it, participants are invited to master a number of professional competencies in the field of organizational management using computer modeling. Forms of training are distance video lectures and practical classes. For each topic, an intermediate test is carried out, and their results are put up a final assessment. Participants who have successfully completed the training receive a certificate confirming the passage of 16 hour refresher course on our program.
Keywords: distance education, advanced training, organizational management, computer modeling, computer simulators
Red blood cells (RBC) roll like tractor caterpillars along narrow capillaries. On the erythrocyte surface there are charges that, when moving together with the erythrocyte membrane, create a magnetic field in the vicinity of the RBC. Discrete charges are distributed uniformly on the surface of the RBC, their number can reach several million and the charges move together with the RBC membrane. The surface of the RBC is approximated by a truncated cylinder. Discrete charges are located evenly over the surface of the RBC and move along closed curves that are rectangular trapezoids. A mathematical model has been constructed that allows calculating the intensity of the magnetic field produced by mobile charges located on the RBC membrane. According to the Bio-Savart law, the magnetic field strength can be calculated at some point in space if the coordinates and velocity of the charge are known, the distance from the charge to the point and the angle between the velocity vector and the radius vector connecting the charge and the point. If we assume in the first approximation that the medium is isotropic and magnetic currents are absent, then Maxwell's equations can be written out. These equations can be rewritten in the form of equations in finite differences, solving by numerical methods one can obtain distributions of electric and magnetic field strengths in the vicinity of the RBC. Calculations were carried out for different values of input parameters. In the case when the RBCs move through the capillary network, in which the narrow capillaries are located close to each other, the magnetic fields of the RBCs in different capillaries interact, and, as a result, we obtain a new distribution of the magnetic field strength in the vicinity of the capillary network, which varies with time.
Keywords: mathematical model, algorithm, magnetic field strength, electromagnetic interaction, erythrocyte, narrow capillary
The article demonstrates a computer model of a fiber-optic sensor implemented on the basis of a two-frequency optoelectronic generator (OEG) for measuring lateral pressure. In the loop of the optoelectronic generator, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a phase shift is applied to which a transverse pressure is applied to guide the birefringence and create two orthogonally polarized transparency windows, which leads to the generation of two optical frequencies. The difference frequency of the beats between the two optical frequencies lies in the microwave range and depends on the magnitude of the pressure applied to the FBG. It was modeled that the sensitivity and the minimum detectable pressure are ~ 10 GHz / (N / mm) and 2.5 × 104 (N / mm), respectively. The high frequency and stability of the generated microwave component of the optoelectronic generator provide an extremely reliable and highly accurate measurement. Frequency survey allows the system to operate at high speed. In addition, the measurements are insensitive to changes in the ambient temperature and the wavelength of the optical carrier.
Keywords: transverse pressure, fiber optic sensor, fiber Bragg grating with phase shift, birefringence, optoelectronic generator, two-frequency optical signal with microwave frequency difference frequency
The article is devoted to the study of the thyristor regulator of the booster voltage harmonic composition in the mode of longitudinal-transverse regulation. The results of the harmonic analysis of thyristor regulator output voltage , obtained using simulation in the Simulink package, are presented.
Keywords: longitudinal-transverse regulation, thyristor regulator, regulating characteristics, modeling, harmonic analysis, Matlab Simulink
The present article is devoted to development and a research of the distributed fiber systems of aero acoustic control of parameters of an air-gas stream on a cut of a nozzle of turbomachines. The main emphasis is placed on development and to a research of the distributed fiber systems on the basis of control methods the using multiplexed fiber-optical sensors of control of parameters of an air-gas stream on a cut of a nozzle of the turbomachines using advantages of optical methods of information transfer and the device for his realization. The principles of creation of the complex systems of aero acoustic cartography complemented with methods and measuring instruments of gasdynamic parameters of a stream in a flowing part and on a cut of a nozzle of the turbomachines directed to increase in informational content and level of algorithmization of nondestructive control of a condition of working shovels and providing data acquisition in the conditions of parametrical and structural uncertainty of an air-gas stream as on controlled internal sections of a flowing part, and on output section on a turbomachine cut are defined. Problems of placement of points of control and restoration of spatial distribution of the field of measurements in discrete set of points separately are considered. Restoration of the acoustic field of turbomachines is implemented according to measurements at the exit of WATERS, only using statistical approach. Restoration of the field is presented in the form of continuous functions of spatial coordinates by results of measurement in discrete set of points in the presence of aprioristic information on properties of the measured fields. Statistical approaches for determination of coordinates of sensors and an error of restoration on the example of one model problem of control of the field of the radiation created by the continuous exclusive radiator are used. Results of calculations show that existence of correlation between coefficients of decomposition of the field of radiation on functions, leads to reduction, necessary for achievement of the set accuracy of restoration of number of sensors.
Keywords: distributed fiber systems, аero acoustic control, acoustic field, process simulation, recovery
The article provides a solution a schedule generation problem for the timber transportation, a description of the problem is given, and a multi-criteria mathematical model is created. It is indicated that the task in question can be assigned to the class of vehicle routing problems in the general formulation of GVRP related to the job-shop scheduling. A hybrid algorithm for solving the problem based on the decomposition method using the simplex method and the genetic algorithm was developed. Conducted testing showed the effectiveness of the developed method on real data of wood harvesting enterprises. The results of numerical methods testing on real data suggest a reduction of the complexes of forest transport machines downtime, and an increase of transported wood volume during the planning period. The scientific results presented in the article were used in the development of a planning and management system «Opti-Wood» developed by Opti-Soft company.
Keywords: wood harvesting, GVRP, optimization, job shop scheduling, operational logistics, genetic algorithm