The authors have developed a device consisting of a system of perception of images of printed characters and a personal computer (PC), which determines the types of characters. According to the program developed by the authors, the PC contours the image of the printed symbol in a rectangular matrix consisting of the cells of the PC's storage device. As a result of the edging of the shape of the printed symbol, essential and necessary signs were determined - the directions of the elements of the shape of the symbol, according to which, using the developed algorithm, the PC determined the type of this symbol relative to others. The perception system includes a small-sized television tube - a vidicon with a generator of sweeps of a vidicon beam on its screen vertically and horizontally, two channels and a coincidence circuit. The developed system of perception is distinguished by: simplicity of design, compactness, efficiency.
Keywords: direction, perception system, trigger, amplifier, pulse counter, coincidence circuit
This article formulates the main stages of the process of constructing analytic-numerical models of functioning of distributed information systems with non-exponential (self-similar) input traffic of requests. Each separate stage of modeling, at the conceptual level, is reduced to solving a certain class of mathematical problems. The basis of the mathematical apparatus for obtaining the basic integral characteristics of the quality of distributed information systems functioning lies in the method of analyzing the average values of networks of queues. The basic relationships for calculating the reactivity of distributed information systems operation are given.
Keywords: distributed information system, discrete self-similar process, Hurst parameter, Pareto distribution, queuing network, Kendall classification, Polacek-Khinchin formula, average system response time
An important aspect in the creation of information and training systems for training and advanced training of technological personnel of industrial enterprises is the development and implementation of mathematical models of the studied technological processes at the stage of forming algorithmic and software of such systems. The considered information and training system is associated with the blending and casting of aluminum alloys of various grades. The system contains the necessary amount of theoretical information that describes the basic principles of aluminum production using the most well-known technological operations aimed at the formation of the required metal alloys with a given chemical composition. The information-training system is based on a mathematical model of the technological process, in the development and description of which both the principles of informational similarity and the physicochemical laws are used using experimental-statistical modeling methods. The structure of the information and training system consists of structural units that interact logically with each other, which allow the formation and solving of various technological problems of melting aluminum melting in smelting furnaces. Each unit has a certain meaning and performs the required amount of load. The system consists of seven important and weighty structural units. The interactions of the studied production object with the control actions and external disturbances make it possible to form the initial parameters of the task, which in turn become the basis for user interaction with the training system. The user interface of the system allows visualizing the aspects of technological change that are taking place and storing the student’s corrective actions for further analysis in the computer’s memory. If necessary, the system can provide the user with the opportunity to use the potential of an interactive assistant, in the event that he is difficult or unable to determine the weight of the next corrective adjustment. The interactive assistant based on the current parameters of the technological problem is able to determine and suggest to the user the use of the most optimal control action for the best solution of the problem. Thus, when introducing these principles of training, the system should show its effectiveness by reducing the final cost of the finished metal products, by reducing errors in technological operations and empirical calculations of the masses of the components used, increasing its consumer qualities.
Keywords: mathematical model, model-simulator, technological problem, system structure, physico-chemical patterns, chemical composition, control actions, control mode
Modern development of x-ray technology allows to conduct a detailed study of multiphoton processes of absorption and scattering of x-ray photon by deep and subvalent shells of molecular systems in a wide range of energies. The specifics of solving the problem of interaction of an x-ray photon with a multiatomic system requires the use of a single-center approach to the calculation of the electronic States of molecules. The main disadvantage of this approach is a decrease in the accuracy of the calculation of spectroscopic quantities with limited consideration of the terms of the single-center decomposition of the molecular orbital. The paper studies the effect of accounting for higher harmonics of single-center molecular orbital decomposition on the calculation of the energy characteristics of molecular systems. The analysis of the parameters of the single-center decomposition of the functions of the nuclear ligand, depending on its charge. The criteria for inclusion of higher harmonics of single-center decomposition of atomic ligand functions in the molecular orbital are determined. The calculation of energy characteristics is performed on the example of diatomic molecules HF, LiF and BF. The selected series of molecules makes it possible to study the behavior of higher harmonics of the single-center decomposition of the molecular orbital depending on the growth of the atomic ligand charge.
Keywords: molecular orbital, single-center decomposition, higher harmonics, a nuclear ligand, the energy of the electronic state of a diatomic molecule
The article is devoted to the problem of theoretical research and development of perovskite-based solar cells to optimize their design and increase efficiency. The paper presents a numerical simulation of the transfer and accumulation of charge carriers in the planar p – i – n heterostructure of a solar cell. The simulation is based on a stationary physico-topological model based on the diffusion-drift system of semiconductor equations. The efficiency of solar cells for different perovskite film thickness was obtained. It has been established that the maximum efficiency of the optimized design of a solar cell is about 27% with a perovskite film thickness of 500-700 nm and a defect concentration in it of the order of 1012 cm-3.
Keywords: Numerical simulation, solar cell, perovskite, film thickness, defect concentration, current-voltage characteristic
The results of the analysis of the functional completeness of ten intelligent video Analytics systems are presented. It is shown how the video Analytics systems selected for comparison have similarities or differences in the criterion of functional completeness. The paper analyzes whether they contain the most typical video detectors and what additional video Analytics functions each of the compared systems has. It is shown how it is possible to estimate as far as functional completeness of this or that system corresponds to requirements of the user.
Keywords: intelligent video surveillance, video Analytics, specialized videodetector, intelligent analysis of video analysis of functional completeness, a formal analysis of the degree of similarity systems, a measure of similarity of Jacquard, Earl of superiority,
This article deals with the problem of determining the cost of renting real estate. The idea of minimizing the absolute error function using artificial neural networks is substantiated. Particular attention is paid to the process of determining the input data of the neural network. In particular, the problems of determining such parameters as the improvement of the region and premises. The article clarifies the features of determining the weight coefficients to determine the technical equipment of the room using a genetic algorithm. A model of neural network architecture is proposed. The model of change of weight coefficients is described. As a result, the model was tested on test data, and the model of data correction taking into account price dynamics was described.
Keywords: neural network, data mining, data analysis, real estate rental, regression, genetic algorithm, Informatics, machine learning, cost estimation, modeling, extrapolation
The paper considers an adaptive on-off regulator. A block diagram of this device is given, and the sequence of operation of the blocks is also described. Simulation modeling of various types of on-off regulators was carried out in order to identify their effectiveness.
Keywords: automation, adaptive regulation, regulators, simulation
The proposed article provides a generalized model of the hydraulic system of a drilling rig during the beginning of the introduction of the drilling tool into the ground. The oscillograms of the parameters of the motor in time are shown, obtained using a computational experiment in the Matlab program. Using this model, it is possible to estimate the transient processes of the hydraulic drive at the system design stage. The above formulas describe the parameters of the hydraulic system, determine the pressure at the pump outlet, the inlet to the throttled resistance and the input channel of the motor. Changing the input characteristics of the system allows you to monitor the behavior of the system in different situations and under different loads.
Keywords: mathematical model, hydraulic system of a drilling rig, work dynamics, transients
In This study posed the problem of simulating the cooling system of supercomputers with a heat pump on the reverse Stirling cycle by numerical modeling of heat transfer processes in the object under study. The article presents the results of numerical simulation of heat transfer processes in the cooling system of processors of supercomputers with a heat pump on the reverse Stirling cycle. A numerical model of the heat transfer process was investigated. Using the method of numerical simulation of the heat transfer process, the dependences of the temperature delta, thermal resistance and the fraction of losses of the heat pump of the cooling system are obtained. The dependence of the ratio of the stroke of the piston to the diameter of the piston H / D of the heat pump has been revealed, taking into account the loss of the thermal resistance of the liquid cooling circuits and the elements of the design of the heat pump.
Keywords: processor, heat flow, thermal resistance, Laplace equation, heat pump, heat exchange, Stirling backflow, cooling system
The article presents a detailed analysis of the structure of the model of management of the hematopoietic functional system of the body in various physiological situations, which activates the activity of a certain adaptive circuit that characterizes the functional state. The first state and adaptation to the contour of the functional hematopoietic system of the body included in the work are considered in detail. The structural equation of adaptation of the first contour is made. It is concluded that the equation of adaptation compiled for a hypothetical control model adaptation, in the actual state of Affairs raises a number of inconsistencies with the hypothetical implementation-related deviations from the ideal parameters of functioning: autonomic nervous system, internal environment, metabolic state, the processes of transmitting the control actions. All these deviations affect the observed realization of the set of blood form elements (RSBE).
Keywords: physiological model of functional hematopoietic system, the adaptive circuit, the space of external influences, categorical diagram, adaptation processes, gemondo-nuclear level, functino mapping, homomorphic mapping, the equation of adaptation
A program has been developed that allows to evaluate the adhesion of paint coatings by means of analyzing images of the surface of coatings with delamination’s from the substrate to be protected. The program is written in Kotlin using JavaFX platform and is focused on tests carried out by the method of lattice cuts within the conditions of paint and varnish production. Through the work the evaluation of the area of the coating detachment from the surface to be protected is being held and the obtained result is scored by points according to the method of lattice cuts. The use of the program does not require a large computing power of the computer and reduces the time for obtaining the calculating results for one sample from 20 minutes to 3 seconds.
Keywords: adhesion, lacquer coatings, notch method, Kotlin language, JavaFX
A finite-element analysis of the stress-strain state of the bank-protection structure of the type anchor bolveverk with various types of external force is performed. It has been established that the adopted geometrical parameters of the structure provide the required margin of safety and ensure the stable operation of the object in the entire range of design loads. Practical recommendations are formulated for adjusting the design structure of the bollard (biteng).
Keywords: finite-element method, stress-strain state, Ansys Mechanical, banked fastener type building, bollard
The article shows the possibility of describing complex objects with parallel functioning components in the form of structures built on the basis of neural networks. The neural network is represented by an operator matrix, that is, a formal description that gives a universal way to solve many non-standard control problems. Matrix apparatus is shown to significantly improve the efficiency of the method compared to previously known. It is concluded that the representation of the neural network by the operator matrix provides a universal way to solve the problems of transport and information flows management; neuron-like systems based on such representation of the neuron are able to catch complex nonlinear relationships, self-improvement, learning in the process of use. Their use provides ample opportunities for finding and implementing effective solutions to the problems of management and control of flows
Keywords: graph, parallelism, transport and information flow, neural network, synaptic weight, predicate, activation function, operator matrix, neuron, complex systems
The article is devoted to modeling the operation of a piezoelectric generator (PEG) in the form of a round bimorph plate with two piezoactive layers and an inertial mass. The considered PEG can serve as an element of the energy storage device, as a source of electrical energy obtained from the vibrations of structural elements and machines. The bending axisymmetric oscillations of a composite elastic and electroelastic body are considered in a linear formulation, taking into account the dissipation of mechanical and electrical energy. The problem is solved using the finite element method (FEM) in ACELAN. Statement of the problem simulates the fixation of PEG in a moving structure. A modal analysis of the device was carried out, the first frequencies of resonance, antiresonance, and electromechanical coupling coefficient were found. Next, the problem of forced harmonic oscillations at the first antiresonance frequency is solved and the output electric potential is determined. The dependences of the output characteristics of PEG on its geometrical parameters are constructed.
Keywords: piezoelectric generator, energy storage, electric potential, finite element method
On the basis of the mathematical apparatus of Queuing, a mathematical model for the diagnosis of the technical condition of vehicles with electronic control units. The developed mathematical model of vehicle diagnostics in the framework of discrete-event paradigm. Numerical experiments to assess the effectiveness of diagnostics are carried out.
Keywords: cars, electronic control unit, diagnostics, Queuing system, efficiency, operating costs
This paper presents a mathematical model of an electro-hydraulic vibratory exciter used for vibration testing of steel piles on coral reefs. Based on this model of electro-hydraulic vibrator, we have built characteristic curves to evaluate the stability of the system, the quality of the transition process, as well as parameters - amplitude, frequency. The research results are the scientific basis for design of electro-hydraulic vibratory exciter for vibration testing of steel piles in the coral foundation.
Keywords: vibration exciter, electro-hydraulic vibrator, frequency
The paper considers the method of calculating core structures, for the base - by the boundary element method, for the structure - by the finite element method. A steel frame on a soil base, hinged at two points, was taken as a structure. The results of the calculation of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of a frame without a ground base by the finite element method, the results of the calculation of the amplitude-frequency characteristic of a frame on a soil base with the joint use of the finite element method and the boundary element method are presented. According to the research, a conclusion was drawn on the accuracy of taking into account the dynamic properties of the soil foundation.
Keywords: structural diagnostics, damage localization, vibration diagnostic methods
The article is devoted to the actual problem of increasing the complexity of user passwords in systems with remote access to increase their information security. It proposes a method based on the integrated application of the input characters of the password and the time intervals between them. In the article, using the inhibitor time network Petri, a model of a dynamic password setting process was constructed, on its basis the process of forming a reference image and user authentication is described. The above calculations of increasing the complexity of the password prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: authentication, password, dynamic process, Petri net, complexity, password retrieval
The computer technology for precious metals examination by method of colorimetry aided with auxiliary chemical reaction is created and investigated. The essentially new practical and methodical novation allowing to shift some orders lower the bottom limit of a measuring range is offered, the theoretical basis for micro- and macroanalysis computer technology is established. Experimentally confirmed, that with the help of new technique it is possible to detect micro probes of silver, gold, platinum and palladium about 10-9 g. It is acceptable to use the proposed technology for quantitative estimation of other substances representing interest in this or that area of expertise.
Keywords: examination, macroanalysis, microanalysis, colorimetry, computer technologies
The article deals with the work of mechanical absorbers, where the working body is presented in the form of a rotating cylinder. The analysis of interaction of liquids and a working body in similar devices is made. The mutual influence of liquid layers and the action of the working body are considered. The estimation of the force factors of the dynamic layer entrained by the rotating cylinder is obtained. The study presented in the article will help in the preparation of engineering methods for calculating the operating and design parameters of devices.
Keywords: absorber, emulsion layer, capillary forces, emulsion, static meniscus region, capillary pressure, immiscible liquids, rotating cylinder, liquid, Navier-Stokes equation
The development of modern technology makes increasingly stringent requirements for materials, and improving the reliability and durability is an urgent task for many industries. One of the most important elements of the automatic coupling device of the car is the absorbing device. The parts included in it must meet high standards, be reliable and provide the necessary hardness and mechanical properties of the materials throughout the life cycle of the car. One of these parts included in the friction unit of the absorbing device is a movable plate. In the present work, an example of modernization of the absorbing apparatus through the use of modern methods of modeling and manufacturing of a fixed plate is given. The technical result is to reduce consumption of materials of the movable plate, and to simplify the manufacturing process of the plate by making it from rolled steel.
Keywords: Absorbing apparatus, modeling, mobile plate, energy consumption, friction unit, friction, wear resistance, reliability, durability
The article provides a solution to the problem of the stress-strain state of the base in the field of karst dip. The problem is considered in the linear formulation for a layer of bounded thickness weakened by a cylindrical notch. The solution is obtained in polynomials based on the use of the Solyanik – Crass stress functions satisfying a quasi-harmonic type differential equation. The main task was solved on the basis of using the principle of superposition. The verification of the obtained solution was carried out on the basis of a comparison of the components of the stress and displacement tensor with the results of numerical solutions. Graphs constructed using the Mathcad mathematical complex and the Plaxis software complex were considered. Their analysis showed good convergence of the results.
Keywords: Karst, cylindrical cavity, stresses, displacements, isopolis, linear formulation, mixed problem
Frequency divider based on linear logic is considered. The circuit design concept is based on current mirrors, that provide low dependence from supply voltage. The circuit design of frequency divider and results of simulation on 0.25 um CMOS technology are presented. Additionally, advantages in controlling current consumption and output voltages by changing the value of the reference resistor are shown.
Keywords: frequency divider, current logic, linear algebra
Development of electric energy converters with high energy characteristics is an important scientific and technical task. The solution of this problem is impossible without the use of modern methods of computer modeling. To improve the quality of electricity, filter-compensating devices are used. Develop converters with good energy performance. In this paper, we developed a computer model and circuit of the AC voltage regulator with high-frequency pulse modulation of the output voltage. Methods of digital signal processing and computer simulation are used. In the environment of the software product MATLAB, a program synthesizing the form of voltage at the output of the AC voltage regulator. The program uses a variety of algorithms to control the power keys of the AC voltage regulator. The results of harmonic analysis of the output voltage of the regulator are presented. The study of the AC voltage regulator circuit is performed in the environment of the ORCAD software product. The work of the scheme on the active-inductive load is considered. Electromagnetic processes occurring in the circuit of the AC voltage regulator are investigated. The optimization of the scheme elements is performed. Time diagrams of currents and voltages are obtained. The results of computer simulation can be used in the development of electrical energy converters for electrochemical and electro thermal production.
Keywords: computer simulation; AC voltage regulator; algorithm; high-frequency pulse modulation; time diagrams; transistor key; control system; harmonic composition; damping circuit; thyristor; active-inductive load