The article considers the dynamics of an ion beam in a laser mass – EMAL-2 spectrometer.a numerical model based on the "large - particle" method is Implemented, taking into account the influence of spatial charge fields and the interaction of charged particles with the field of an electrodynamic system. The software package that implements the mathematical model of ion beam motion consists of two parts. The first part is a program written in C++, in which initial conditions are set, the Coulomb interaction between large particles is calculated using the "particle-particle" method, the system of differential equations (1) is integrated using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, and the results are recorded and processed. The second part is a script for the FreeFem++ package, which implements the solution of partial differential equations using the finite element method. A series of numerical experiments and their comparison with the data obtained experimentally are carried out.
Keywords: large particle method, laser mass spectrometer, particle-particle method, electrodynamic system, Runge-Kutta method, laser plasma, magnetic analyzer, ion beam, focusing system, triangulation
In this work a breaking of interatomic bonds of kaolinite unit cell under a microwave irradiation was studied. Using density functional theory method (DFT), free energy of the unit cell was computed: without an external field created by the microwave radiation, with the field along (100), and (010) and (001) directions of the unit cell. It was shown that unit cell free energy differences are several kJ/mol. Computational results are backed up by a band structure computation. The conlcution is that there is no bond breaking in the caolinite unit cell caused by the microwave irradiation.
Keywords: kaolinite, microwave field, covalent bonds, discontinuity, ab inito, density functional theory, unit cell, free energy, electronic band structure, clay
Idea of existence of black holes is the cornerstone of the set of the theories describing evolution of galaxies and stars. In spite of the fact that their existence at most of scientists does not raise doubts, formally these objects are considered as hypothetical. Many astrophysicists consider that our Universe arose from singularity which began to extend from the moment of the Big Bang, however, if black holes do not exist, then it, obviously, it is necessary to rethink the ideas. In this article the view, other than the hypothesis of the Big Bang, of the structure of the Universe and of the possibility of existence of black holes will be considered.
Keywords: cosmological model, a Big Bang, the final Universe, astrophysics, a black hole, supermassive black holes, methods of search of black holes, gravitational forces