The paper discusses the integral indicators of the quality or level of contamination of natural waters, allowing for an assessment of their ecological status. It has been established that the criterion for the quality of treated wastewater discharged into a water body is a regulatory allowable discharge, but it is not always possible to calculate it, especially for small rivers characterized by low flow rates of the river runoff compared to the flow of wastewater. An integral indicator is proposed for assessing the level of pollution of wastewater discharged, a formula for calculating it, as well as criteria for assessing the quality of wastewater discharged according to the proposed integral indicator. The method of calculating the integral indicator is based on the assessment of the quality of wastewater discharged in terms of BOD5, dissolved oxygen, and nutrient elements. Using the wastewater discharged from the Novocherkassk wastewater treatment plant as an example, an integral indicator of the level of contamination was calculated, which made it possible to characterize the wastewater discharged as “dirty” and make a conclusion about the need for additional treatment.
Keywords: wastewater, water pollution level, integral indicator of water quality, sewage treatment facilities
The results of the calculation of installations for reducing the level of air pollution from dust and gas emissions from the Bzugu wastewater treatment plant are given. The aerodynamic calculation of pipelines of the system for cleaning dust and gas emissions and the calculation of prevented environmental damage during the implementation of the proposed environmental measures have been performed.
Keywords: dryers, dust and gas emissions, dust, ammonia, turboscrubber, Yatagan gas convector, axonometric scheme
The article discusses the results of the development of the installation, which allows to ensure the process of purification of multicomponent wastewater containing organic impurities of the phenol series based on the combined method in a single apparatus, consistently combining the ozonation process with the sorption purification of oxidized wastewater, ensuring the continuity of the process and allowing the reuse of residual ozone, which greatly increases the degree of wastewater treatment and eliminates the need for the destruction of ozo on. The degree of purification achieved in this way allows the treated wastewater to be directed to the circulating water supply. The novelty of the task and the lack of available information about the combined process determined the nature and scope of experimental studies. There was a need to develop an apparatus that provides the process of purification of wastewater containing mixtures of organic compounds of the phenol series, consistently combining the process of ozonation with sorption purification of oxidized wastewater, ensuring the continuity of the process. The achieved degree of purification allows directing the treated wastewater to the circulating water supply.
Keywords: multicomponent wastewater, wastewater treatment from organic compounds of the phenol series, ozonation, sorption, adsorption, oxidation-sorption column
The features of natural water reagent treatment are considered. The evaluation of the efficiency of coagulants, the most frequently used in the Russian Federation, rational methods of their introduction into the treated water is given. A method of water treatment is proposed, which allows to use the advantages and minimize the disadvantages of mineral coagulants. Experimental data confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method of concentrated coagulation using a mixed coagulant are presented.
Keywords: water of superficial sources, coagulant, sulfate aluminum, aluminum polyoxychloride, the concentrated input of a coagulant
The legal status of water bodies implies special measures aimed at preserving and preventing negative processes within the boundaries of a water body. A zone with a special mode of use is the territory, within the boundaries of which the mode of using the object for the purpose of protection and (or) to protect the environment is established. In modern geodesy, special satellites are used that are part of the global positioning system. The object is tied to the existing geodetic network, the identification marks are laid in a minimal amount, then aerial photography is performed and the photoplans are “stitched”. The emergence of electronic and unmanned measuring instruments during a complex of geodetic works greatly facilitated the work of geodetic engineers, allowing them to increase the productivity and accuracy of work performed when using such instruments.
Keywords: water protection zone, zones with a special mode of use, water bodies, unmanned aerial vehicles, coastline, coastal protective strip, aerial photography, GNSS receivers, surveying equipment, orthophotomap
Protection of water resources and environmental management are directly related to the development of environmentally friendly technologies for the disposal of liquids with pathogenic properties. A significant proportion of this type of waste is wastewater and liquid manure. The urgency of application of technical means of intensification of process of utilization of liquid fraction of waste of animal husbandry, in particular liquid manure and manure drains is proved. The longest and most complex operation of the recycling cycle is disinfection. Analyzed design the most promising activators disinfection of this waste. The prospects of application of the technical solution in the form of a matrix of retention of ferromagnetic particles of the activator inductor are proved. The proposed solution is patented and can significantly improve the performance and quality of operation of disinfection activators when working with liquid media.
Keywords: liquid fraction of animal waste, liquid manure, manure effluents, disposal, disinfection, disinfection activators, substantiation of activator design
The article discusses the comparison of polyethylene and steel pipelines. The definition of coefficient of temperature linear expansion for polyethylene pipelines is given. The analysis of existing methods to determine the linear dimensions of compensators and their compensating ability was carried out. The analysis of the obtained dependences showed that the calculated compensating ability, in some cases, exceeds the geometric dimensions of the compensator. The method for determining the compensating ability is determined.
Keywords: coefficient of temperature linear expansion, linear size of the compensator, polyethylene pipe, compensating ability
The article presents the results of a study of activated sludge, which purifies domestic wastewater from nitrogen compounds under conditions of low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the bioreactor (concentration at the level of 0.2-0.7 mg / dm3). The studies were carried out in laboratory and semi-production conditions on the models of circulating aeration facilities. Research methods included optical, electron and fluorescence microscopy, laser diffraction method and real-time polymerase chain reaction method. As a result of research, the composition and condition of the main indicator microorganisms of activated sludge, the structure of floccules of activated sludge, including the distribution of sizes of floccules depending on various technological conditions of the process, the cause of filamentous swelling of activated sludge in cases of disturbance of the system’s stability, as well as the number of functional bacteria genes archaea associated with the processes of nitrification and denitrification. Separately, research was carried out on the sedimentation properties of activated sludge, which includes the determination of sedimentation rates of activated sludge under the conditions of the mutual influence of floccules and biofloculation potential. Studies were performed both for experimental activated sludge, working with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification with low concentrations of dissolved oxygen, and for the control nitrifying activated sludge, taken from existing treatment plants operating according to the traditional technological scheme of denitrienitrification.
Keywords: nitrification, denitrification, activated sludge, aerotank, oxidation ditch, biological treatment, domestic wastewater, low oxygen treatment method, energy saving, resource saving, ecology
This work relates to the field of chemical technology and information can be used in the industry to protect against biofouling water recycling systems of energy and petrochemical enterprises.
Keywords: treatment, processes, water, corrosion, fouling, reagents, methods, coolant, electrical treatment, bioculture
The paper reveals the problem and causes of the formation of fetid compounds in the systems of transportation and wastewater treatment. Various methods used at the moment to eliminate and neutralize unpleasant odors, as well as a number of measures to clean the air from fetid compounds are considered. A new method is described to prevent the formation of odors of fetid compounds in wastewater transportation and treatment systems and a device for its implementation using low-intensity cavitation. The scheme of the device for sewage treatment from smells of fetid compounds. The principle of operation of this installation is described.
Keywords: fetid compounds , air purification, biological purification, low-intensity cavitation.
The results of the calculation of the hazard class of dust and gas emissions from the dryer of sewage sludge from the sewage treatment plant "Bzugu" in Sochi are presented.
Keywords: sewage sludge, dryers, dust and gas emissions, air pollution assessment
The results of studies of herbal preparations on their suitability for de-worming sewage of pig-breeding complexes.
Keywords: disinfection, pig complexes, sewage, herbal preparations
The paper considers the main factors determining the quality of underground water deposits within the RO, done hydrochemical and geoecological assessment of groundwater RO. The entropy of the groundwater ecosystem is calculated. It was found that most of the deposits have an entropy of less than 30%. that is, the water is clean enough, not experienced external influences. However, the water quality has deviations in individual indicators from the requirements of SanPiN 22.214.171.1244-01, which can be eliminated by conventional methods of water treatment.
Keywords: groundwater, hydrogeochemical heterogeneity, classification of groundwater, drinking water
the development of the best available technologies, in particular, the disinfection of waste water from meat processing plants is possible in meat clusters, of which the universities are an indispensable element. Disinfection of waste water from meat-processing plants from sanitary-indicative microorganisms, pathogenic enterobacteria and helminth eggs during the electroflotocoagulation method was investigated. The effect of disinfection from E. coli, eterobacteria and salmonella averaged 99%.
Keywords: meat-processing enterprises, sewage, disinfection, electro-flotocoagulation
The article describes the chemical composition of groundwater in the Rostov area. On the basis of sanitary and environmental assessment of the chemical composition of groundwater from wells, one of the areas of the South-Eastern part of the Rostov area, which are sources of water of the Egorlykskaya station, it was found that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide exceeds the MPC by about 1000 times. Analysis of methods of water purification from hydrogen sulfide, the main of which include: oxidation with molecular chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, showed the advantage of using the hydrogen peroxide. A new reactor design is proposed, which allows to increase the contact time of the treated water with the oxidant by hydrogen peroxide without increasing the size of the structure. This allows the maximum transfer of dissolved hydrogen sulfide in the solid phase.
Keywords: groundwater; hydrogen sulfide, purification, hydrogen peroxide, chemical reactor, economic efficiency
Acidification is a device intended for cleaning waste water, air and production of food products, and can be used in individual housing construction in rural areas, camp sites, lodges and resorts. Operating costs for the installation ASFR minimal, as acidification serviced 1 time a year, and thereactor – 1 time per month. Coming through the fan in photoreactor the air is absorbed by green plants of vegetable crops and freed from impurities without the cost of electricity, and needs only the harvest of vegetables. The process of acidification of the organic substances of the waste water is initiated by the biocenosis held Ershova nozzle of polyamide fibers fixed in the septic tank.
Keywords: acidification, wastewater treatment, zero waste, food
The article presents a comparative analysis of modern methods of sewage sludge utilization in Russia and abroad. A comprehensive analysis of the possible use of sludge in the conditions of typical treatment facilities of the Rostov region, proposed engineering and environmental solutions for the secondary use of sludge sewage as a fertilizer on the example of the company "Istok" Kamensk-Shakhtinsky Rostov region.
Keywords: utilization of sewage sludge (OSV), environmental safety, deworming, economic efficiency
The article suggests the use of agricultural wastes of the shell of the anacard nut, cultivated in the Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, as a sorption material. This carbon sorbent (0.5 g / l) was used to remove heavy metals, namely iron (Fe), C = 1.05 mg / l, aluminum (Al), C = 0.10 mg / l) from production waste water of the machine-building plant of LLC Rostselmash (Rostov-on-Don). According to the experimental data, the efficiency of metal removal depends on the sorption time and amounts to: for iron - from 28.6 to 97.1%, for aluminum - from 10 to 90% (Table 2). The concentration of metals in treated wastewater (iron C = 0.03 mg / l and aluminum C = 0.01 mg / l) corresponds to the norms of MPC (iron C = 0.1 mg / l, and aluminum C = 0.04 mg / l), which makes it possible to discharge them into the city water drainage system. From the experimental data, it was concluded that this material can be used as a sorbent.
Keywords: walnut shell anacard, Republic of Cote d'Ivoire, agricultural waste, carbon sorbent, wastewater treatment, heavy metals removal
The advantages and disadvantages of reagent methods for cleaning groundwater from hydrogen sulphide are considered. The time of contact of hydrogen peroxide with hydrogen sulphide contained in the treated water was determined experimentally before the appearance of opalescence caused by the formation of colloidal sulfur. The equation for the time dependence for the start of the hydrogen sulfide oxidation reaction with the concentration of H2O2 is obtained, which makes it possible to calculate the required contact time of the treated water with hydrogen peroxide at a different content of hydrogen sulfide in the initial water.
Keywords: groundwater; water supply; cleaning, hydrogen sulfide, rural settlements, chlorine-containing reagents, hydrogen peroxide
"Environmental safety of rural areas" means the safety of natural and artificial ecological systems, technospheric objects and the population. On the example of Neklinovsky district of Rostov region the key role of ecological monitoring of drinking water quality in the system of environmental safety
Keywords: ecological safety of rural areas, sustainable development of rural areas
It is noted that traditional technologies do not provide removal of organic substances from water, and primary chlorination leads to the formation of highly toxic halogen organic compounds in it. The perspective of using membrane technologies for water purification of surface sources based on: micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, allowing to solve the set task is shown. This was realized during the purification of the Don and Moscow rivers with the use of the biosorption-membrane method, which involves sorption on activated charcoal, biological oxidation of organic substances and filtration through the membrane. The obtained results give the basis for wide application of this method in treatment plants of small settlements, which is especially important for the south of the country, in particular, the Rostov region and the Republic of Kalmykia.
Keywords: микрофильтрация, ультрафильтрация, нанофильтрация, обратный осмос, ультрафильтрационные мембраны, биосорбционно-мембранный реактор, очистка природной воды, порошкообразный активный уголь, биосорбционно-мембранный метод, мембранное фильтрование
An analytical review of the production of biogas from plant substrates is giventerprise.
Keywords: biogas, substrate, bioreactor, technologies for biogas production
When reconstructing left-bank sewage treatment plants, it is proposed to intensify the work of primary sedimentation tanks by including the acidification zone. When reconstructing aerotanks, it is expedient to allocate an anaerobic zone and a nitrification zone. The introduction of projected measures allows to reach the normative parameters of nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen and phosphorus discharge with an increase in the estimated flow rate to 460 thousand m3 / day.
Keywords: sewage, treatment plants, reconstruction, best available technologies, primary settling tanks, acidification, aerotanks, anaerobic zone
Examined the effectiveness of using aeration-lighting installation in the process of biological wastewater treatment.
Keywords: biological filter, biological treatment, energy efficiency, water treatment, lighting, aeroblast, biomass, activated sludge, microorganisms, aeration tank, aerator
The article presents the opportunity to use bioengineering facilities for contaminated surface runoff treatment. Examples of existing technological solutions are given. For instance, in the Institute of hydrobiology NAS of Ukraine the use of bioplatos as post-treatment of water in channels through which water is transported from the Dnieper, was proposed and studied; in the Engineering research center (ERC) “Potential-4” various types of engineering and biological facilities based on the closed bioplate of hydroponic type used in wastewater treatment technologies as a water-protective structure that combines the main elements of treatment using microflora immobilized on an inert substrate and higher aquatic plants, were suggested; scientists of Khabarovsk Institute of Engineering Transport have developed a method for runoff treatment from an oil refinery using a "filter" from thickets of cattail and calamus. The authors of this article presented a technological scheme for treatment both acidic and weak acidic surface runoff in bioengineering construction using macrophyte plants as a complex of hydatophytes, hydrophytes, and helophytes. It is found out that runoff treatment in the proposed facility varies from 72 to 98%.
Keywords: biological pond, biocenosis, hydatophyte, hydrophyte, helophyte, heavy metal, contaminated runoff, filtration, phytophilter, sewage treatment plant