The purpose of this study is to present the forestry complex development scenarios of the Republic of Karelia and the Murmansk region. Based on the use of factor analysis and cluster analysis, 27 central foresters of the study region were divided into 9 clusters according to 20 indicators. The selected indicators took into account the characteristics of wood resources, natural-production conditions and road infrastructure. Based on cluster profiles, as well as on topographical, climatic, soil map and vegetation maps, scenarios for the development of the study region forestry complex in the context of the resulting clusters. The results of the study showed that as they move from south to north, a gradual impoverishment of wood resources occurs. The efforts of the state and business should be aimed at resolving issues of road infrastructure, involving deciduous, small, energy wood in production circulation. Given the natural and production conditions, which are largely determined by the moist forest soils and the extreme vulnerability of the northern ecosystems, in the process of logging, it is especially necessary to pay attention to the minimization of the negative impact of logging operations on the soil cover.
Keywords: zoning, forest industry, factor analysis, cluster analysis, k-means cluster analysis, logging, forest management
Utilisation a waste of stone processing in production of other kinds products is an actual task for stone-cutting enterprises. In this study, the possibilities of using basalt dust generated during sawing, grinding and polishing of basalt and related minerals in the manufacture with concrete are studied. Three groups were prepared with different content of basalt dust - 0 %, 5 % and 20 %. After the final hardening performance of the concrete, the compressive strength testing was conducted on the specimens. The results showed that the addition (5%) added basalt dust practically did not reduce the strength ratio practically, the increase of basalt dust content up to 20% caused an average 16% reduction in the strength of the specimens. The fracture character that occurred in the specimens containing basalt dust corresponded to the fracture character that happened to similarly shaped concrete products.
Keywords: concrete, stone waste, strength, basalt
Maintaining the optimal age structure of the forestry fund is an important factor in the use of forest resources. The purpose of this study was to analyze the age structure of the forestry fund of exploitation forests of the Republic of Karelia. For this purpose, data on the age structure of the forest fund by species groups was collected for 17 central forest districts of the study region. Data sources were forest planning documents. The results of the study showed that coniferous forests predominate in the Republic of Karelia. Deciduous tree species are more widely represented in the southern part of the study region. Deciduous and coniferous forests have different age structures. Young stock, mature timber and overmature forest predominate. At the same time, Young stocks are predominantly represented by coniferous forests. A small proportion of forest approaching maturity is one of the fundamental problems of the region under study, as it helps to curb the increase in logging volumes.
Keywords: forest resources, logging, age structure, coniferous species, deciduous species, ripening forests
The purpose of this study was to assess the forest exploitation conditions of the central forestries of the Republic of Karelia and the Murmansk region. To do this, data were collected for 27 central forestries of the study region, representing 20 variables characterizing indicators of wood resources, natural production conditions and road infrastructure. The assessment of forest exploitation conditions was carried out on the basis of the developed system of indicators, which includes 5 indicators: the value of the exploitation fund; the representativeness of the territory to the natural conditions of growth of deciduous species and the level of allowable cutting area for softwood farming; representativeness of the territory with favorable natural and production conditions in the study region; size of allowable cuts for coniferous economy; and the quality of the road network. The indicators were factors extracted by the method of principal axes in the process of factor analysis. Factors explained 81.4% of the total variance of the 20 variables initially selected. The results of the study showed that two groups of forest areas are distinguished in terms of the average forest reserve: the forest areas of the Murmansk region, which are characterized by a low average reserve, and the forest areas of the Republic of Karelia. Four central forestries located in the southern part of the Republic of Karelia are distinguished by the level of reserves in the forests of deciduous tree species and the level of allowable cut for deciduous farming. The most favorable natural and production conditions are forest areas located in the southern part of the Republic of Karelia.
Keywords: logging, natural and production conditions, factor analysis, Karelia, Murmansk region, timber resources
The purpose of this study is to perform a classification to form a knowledge base in the field of harvesting and use in industry and in the social sphere of one of the valuable types of non-wood forest resources-tree greens. Such knowledge base is necessary for synthesis of new progressive processes, machines and mechanisms for harvesting and use of wood greens. The basis of the classification formation is based on the analysis of technological and technical solutions based on scientific and technical search, given in inventions and utility models patented in 2010-2019 in the Russian Federation. As a result of researches the main directions of patenting of developments in the field of preparation and use of wood greens are classified.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
Justification of the parameters and compiling of the forest machine chassis can not be performed without determining the weight of the load. The weight of the load depends on the wood density. The wood density within the growing tree is heterogeneous. The aim of this study is to develop mathematical models to calculate the average density of the tree trunk area depending on its location in the trunk. The research is based on the construction of approximating dependences of changes in the average wood density in the longitudinal direction of the trunk by minimum deviation method. The obtained mathematical models establish the relationship of density changes in the longitudinal direction of the trunk for four forest-forming species of the Republic of Karelia: pine, spruce, birch and aspen.
Keywords: modeling, wood density, logging, skidding, forwarder, skidder
In the course of the system analysis of scientific and technical information, including patents, it has been established that currently the forestry sector is actively patenting technical and technological solutions for basic operations, but not enough attention is paid to building knowledge bases in the field of technologies and equipment for non-timber forest resources. The formation of databases in this area is caused by identified trends in product development from various types of natural raw materials for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic industry and other areas of the social sphere and economy. Among the types of natural raw materials, an important place is occupied by raw materials with a wide range of biological effects, including chaga birch fungus. The development of the knowledge base in the field of engaging chaga in various spheres of the social sphere and economy is based on system analysis and patent search.
Keywords: knowledge base, birch mushroom, intellectual property, forest complex, non-timber forest resources, patent, intellectual property, chaga
Parameters of logging machines are determined by the characteristics of the subject of labour, in particular the size of trees. In stands the sizes of trees vary and have stochastic character. This leads to the difficulty of determining the design tree for the felling machine or calculating the weight of the wood moved by the transport machine. The problem is complicated by the fact that the design of the forest machine should ensure the efficiency of work in different stands. The solution of the problem of determining the calculated characteristics of the subject of labour (characteristics that determine the values of external forces acting on the forest machine) can be based on the analysis of regularities in the structure of stands by thickness. The purpose of this study is to describe a method of constructing stochastic models of the structure of the stand by thickness in the design of forest machines and an example of its application. The proposed method makes it possible to form a stochastic model of the tree stand structure by thickness for the forest area under study and covers procedures from the collection of initial data to the generation of the tree diameter algorithm. Generation algorithms obtained by the method can be used in the development of simulation models for computer experiments aimed at calculating the optimal parameters of forest machines.
Keywords: forest machines designing, stochastic simulation, stand structure by thickness, tree diameter distribution, simulation modeling, computational experiment on the computer
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the operational characteristics of individual trees in the regions of the Northern economic area of the Russian Federation (NEA). On the basis of the estimation, the weighted average structure of the stand is obtained in terms of thickness for NEA. This made it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility of creating a forest machine with parameters that allow it to be used effectively in all regions of the NEA.
Keywords: forest resources, structure of the tree stand in thickness, Northern economic region
The studies are devoted to a comparative assessment of the average performance characteristics of the timber stands of the regions of the Northern economic area (NEA). The work presents the distributions for the NEA regions: the total timber resources, the timber resources of ripe and over-mature plantations in operational forests, the volume of logging, and the volume of the cut-off area and the species composition of stand. Based on the evaluation of the performance characteristics of timber stands and individual trees, the weighted average characteristics of the model stand for NEA were calculated. The obtained results of a comparative assessment of forest resources can be used in forecasting the productivity and operating costs of forest harvesting machines operating in the conditions of NEA forests.
Keywords: timber resources, timber stock, estimated cutting area, volume of logging, average timber stand, volume of stem, species composition of stand, model stand
Classification of heuristic methods for finding new solutions is presented. The classification is based on the hierarchical relationship of heuristic methods, based on their practical use. According to the proposed classification, heuristic methods are divided into three groups: methodological, systematic and empirical.
Keywords: classification, heuristic method, invention, hierarchy, interconnection
The solution of the problem of justifying the operating modes and the acquisition of equipment used in the technological processes of timber industry is proposed to be implemented using the described methodology. The methodology is based on probabilistic-statistical analysis of technological processes and their representation as queuing systems.
Keywords: technological network, technological process, technological line, complex, queuing theory, queuing system, timber industry complex
The article focuses on the description structuring of manufacturing process and technological process in the forest industry in the context of a unified system for forest harvesting and processing of tree biomass. An approach to the description of the processes in the timber industry complex is proposed. It is based on the concept of "technological network." Definitions of a term and related terms with him are proposed in the article.
Keywords: Terminology, timber industry, perforated technological process, technological network of timber production, manufacturing network
Effectiveness of wood firm depends up supporting of optimal balance of production and consumption of wood biomass. The problem solution demands optimization of order portfolio in the context of forest operators and woodmongers as a consistent system of the harvesting and processing of wood. The article shows the formulation of this problem in the light of logging contractors and woodworking enterprises.
Keywords: technological network, optimization of order portfolio, optimal bucking, perforated technological process, sustainable wood use
Analysis findings of possibility of establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in the Republic of Karelia can be found in the article. The advantages of production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in comparison with paper pulp production are developed in the article. A brief analysis of Russian market of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp can be found in the article. Statement of reasons of establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp in the Republic of Karelia can be found in the article too. The establishing production of bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp could help to solve a problem of deciduous trees processing which is in Republic of Karelia.
Keywords: Bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp, paper pulp, cardboard, paper, pulp, processing, deciduous trees, quaking asp, birch