In July and August 2019, the Grott ground penetrating radar was used as part of the field work of the Russian Arctic National Park, a federally funded institution, to survey areas polluted by oil products on Alexandra Island in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago. The results obtained are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the prospects of using the method of ultra-wideband electromagnetic sounding to solve environmental problems in the permafrost zone in the Arctic region.
Keywords: national park, Arctic, pollution, waste, soil, rock, georadar, ecosystem, sounding, radarogram, infiltrate
This study investigates possibilities for identifying additional deposits of polymetallic ores based on geophysical studies that use ground-penetrating radar (georadar). Such studies can render a deposit significantly more attractive from an economic standpoint. Experimental methodological work was carried out to compare the geological data of preliminary exploration and georadar exploration with GROT 12 georadars.
Keywords: ground-penetrating radar, radargram, geological section, profile, anomaly, ore body, exploration, video pulses
The results of experiments on the Moscow – Ekaterinburg highway are discussed. The principal possibility of using broadband (150-600 kHz) HF signals for transmitting information and for studying the fine structure of the ionosphere in various heliogeophysical conditions is shown.
Keywords: broadband signal, ionosphere, fine structure, noise resistance, operational forecast, information transfer, multiple-beam structure, separation of signals, base frequencies, signal attenuation, long-term prediction
The article describes optimal mechanisms of wideband transmitter and receiver (150-600 kHz) for information transfer and for researching of thin structure of ionosphere in different helio-geophysical conditions. The proposed schemes give an opportunity to receiving with division of beams and to use the energy of all waves for increasing interference immunity.
Keywords: wideband, frequency of sounding, synchronization, antenna, reference generator, processor, band-pass filter, interference immunity, multipath propagation, phase, program
The article describes the correlation between the signal edge amount of sounding pulse and small irregularities detection in environments with dispersion. The analysis of experimental data on effective bandwidth of decameter waves spreading on the route Moscow-Ekaterinburg and results of wideband ground-penetrating radar sounding in natural environments with high dispersion gives the opportunity to experiment on surface, vertical and backward-inclined sounding. It is reported that the use of wideband electromagnetic pulses is perspective trend of progress in sounding of natural environments.
Keywords: electromagnetic sounding, decameter waves, electromagnetic pulses, small irregularities, permittivity, ground-penetrating radar sounding, dispersion, natural environment, vertical sounding, spectral form, ionosphere
The necessity of studying the thermal balance of electrons in the ionospheric sporadic E layer to clarify the conditions of its formation in the framework of the theory of the wind shear. The method of calculation of the altitude profile of electron temperature in the sporadic E layer of the ionosphere. Reported satisfactory agreement between the calculated profile of the temperature of the eiectrons and its experimental profile.
Keywords: ionosphere electron, temperature, sporadic layer, heat balance, the heating rate, wind shear, altitude profile of the temperature probe measurements
The technique of calculation of high-altitude temperature profile of electrons in the region E of the ionosphere of the Earth consided. Presented examples of the calculation of the profile of the electron temperature at altitudes of 100 - 170 km, depending on solar Zenith angle given. Discusses the problems of the heat balance of the ionospheric electrons of Earth.
Keywords: ionosphere electron temperature, concentration, heat balance, the heating rate, solar radiation, collisions of electrons, high-altitude temperature profile, probe measurements
The method of calculating the heat flow to the ionospheric electrons from photoelectrons resulting from ionization of the neutral atmospheric components by solar radiation in region E of the ionosphere of the Earth is considered . Examples of the calculation of the spectra of photoelectrons and the rate of heat influx to the electron gas at an altitude of 130 km, depending on solar Zenith angle.
Keywords: solar radiation spectra of photoelectrons, the zenith angle of the sun, the collision of electrons, the ionization potential, secondary ionization, effective absorption cross section
We consider the technique for calculating the spectra of primary photoelectrons generated by ionization of neutral components of the atmosphere by solar radiation in the area E of the Earth's ionosphere. Examples of the calculation of the photoelectron spectra at altitudes (100 - 130) km, depending on the solar zenith angle to the average level of solar activity are shown.
Keywords: solar radiation spectra of photoelectrons, the zenith angle of the sun, the collision of electrons, the ionization potential, secondary ionization, effective absorption cross section.
The experimental results of determining the sliding surface of landslides in field experiments in the North Caucasus by the method of ultra-wideband monopulse radiolocation by using GPR ""GROT-12"" were received. The prospects for the use of advanced technology for the assessment of the power of the strata that cover the surface of sliding rock mass forming the body of the landslide are discussed. It is shown that the proposed technique allows to estimate the body volume of potential natural and man-made landslides.
Keywords: radar sensing, ground penetrating radar, the landslide body, the sliding surface, the power of layers, probing depth, resolution