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  • Technology design of the exploited roofs in a dense urban development

    This article is devoted to the issue of rational exploitation of space in cities with a large population. It is known that a sharp decrease in the area of land plots within the city limits accessible to public use leads to a decrease in the quality of life of citizens. The authors of this article are considering in detail the possibility of using roofs as additional public spaces. The article discusses such methods for using roofs as solar power generation, rainwater harvesting, apiaries and poultry farms, sports complexes, playgrounds, vegetable farms, etc. Particular attention is paid to the so-called ""green roofs"", their design, classification, application. The authors of this article talk about the numerous advantages of green roofs, such as the ability to manage wastewater, reduce the influence of “urban heat islands”, create new public spaces, create new jobs, increase energy efficiency, reduce noise, increase market value, etc. However, the authors of this article did not forget to show the disadvantages of green roofs. The main disadvantages of this project are the higher initial cost, the increased load on the foundation and walls, and the increased costs of operation. Nevertheless, the authors draw conclusions that the advantages of green roofs far exceed their disadvantages and the further development of this direction is very important and promising. 3. Installation of active seismic resistance monitoring systems (active method). Such an active feedback control system contains three main elements: a. Sensors for measuring external excitation; b. Computer hardware and software; c. Drives to provide the necessary control forces. At present, the most popular is the hybrid method of semi-active control, which combines the advantages of a seismoisolating basement with passive shock absorbers, which is much more economical in comparison with the active method.

    Keywords: city, roof in operation, green roof, dense urban development, energy saving, ecology, green building, green building

  • On the use of air-supported structures

    The authors of this article considered some aspects related to the history, manufacture and operation of temporary public pneumatic structures in an urban environment. In recent years, pneumatic structures have been used quite often and successfully as multipurpose portable temporary structures for public use. They are an excellent alternative to traditional capital structures made of steel, concrete, bricks. The authors showed design differences and features of air-supported and air-inflatable buildings, described in detail the areas of their application, advantages and disadvantages. This article discusses the characteristics of the material used for coating pneumatic structures, modern innovative trends in the production of multilayer composite membranes. The authors of this article conclude about the possibility of expanding the use of pneumatic structures instead of traditional portable temporary public buildings.

    Keywords: air support building, temporary structure, pneumatic structure, membrane, dome, inflatable structure, temporary structure, mobile structure, composite material, long-span structure, multi-purpose space

  • Main methods used in the design of earthquake-resistant objects

    The traditional approach to designing seismic resistant buildings is to provide the building with strength, rigidity and inelastic deformation capacity. modern methods of protection, in contrast, are not to strengthen the building, but in its ability to relax forces and stresses. There are three main methods used in the design of earthquake-resistant objects. 1. The use of seismic insulating basement. This system provides isolation only in the horizontal direction and is rigid or semi-rigid in the vertical direction. 2. The use of devices that dissipate the energy of an earthquake. In the building, seismic dampers are installed, which reduce the magnitude of vibrations, turning the kinetic energy of the vibrations into thermal energy. 3. Installation of active seismic resistance monitoring systems (active method). Such an active feedback control system contains three main elements: a. Sensors for measuring external excitation; b. Computer hardware and software; c. Drives to provide the necessary control forces. At present, the most popular is the hybrid method of semi-active control, which combines the advantages of a seismoisolating basement with passive shock absorbers, which is much more economical in comparison with the active method.

    Keywords: seismic resistance, high-rise building, earthquake, seismic isolation foundation, “levitating” house, damper, deformation, structural reaction, passive, active, semi-active control system

  • On the development of facade glazing systems for civil buildings

    A comparative analysis was made of the evolution of the development of facade glazing systems in the design of public buildings both abroad and in Russia. It has been established that both abroad and in Russia are characterized by the appearance of buildings with continuous glazing, the production of glass and double-glazed windows of a new generation: with magnetron application of heat-reflecting coatings and with energy-saving characteristics. The shape, size, placement of the glazed surfaces of the facade were determined by the climatic conditions, economic and scientific-technical development of the countries.

    Keywords: Facade glazing, translucent facades, Bauhaus, Le Corbusier, stained glass, cold-formed glass, cold facade, exhaust facade, external natural factors