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  • Overview of the integration of blockchain and the Internet of Things:a study of current problems

    The integration of blockchain technology with the Internet of Things (IoT) offers transformative potential for various sectors. This article delves into 16 distinct methods of integrating blockchain with IoT, emphasizing that there isn't a one-size-fits-all solution. Each method has its unique advantages and potential drawbacks, necessitating careful consideration based on specific IoT system requirements. For instance, integrating with public blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum offers transparency and decentralization but faces scalability issues. Sidechains introduce flexibility but might pose security risks. Blockchain platforms like Hyperledger Fabric expedite development but can lead to vendor lock-in. The diversity of these methods underscores the importance of a well-thought-out approach tailored to the specific needs of the IoT system in question. As technology evolves, we anticipate more innovative approaches to emerge, emphasizing the continuous need for research, experimentation, and collaboration to fully harness the potential of IoT and blockchain integration.

    Keywords: blockchain , IOT , BIoT, smart contracts, IoT security

  • Import substitution of the oxygen-converter steel production control systems controller equipments at the Novolipetsk Iron and Steel Works with using domestic equipment

    The high relevance of issues related to the import substitution of foreign controller equipment with domestic developments for automated process control systems at mining and metallurgical companies is dictated by the lack of possibility of purchasing and technical support for automated process control components to ensure continuous production of mining and metallurgical enterprises, as well as to meet the needs of the country ferrous metallurgy products. This article discusses the development of an automated control system for the technological process of steel production in an oxygen converter at the Novolipetsk Metallurgical Plant using controllers from a domestic manufacturer. The transition to automated control systems based on domestic controller equipment is a strategically important step for the enterprise, aimed at increasing the efficiency of production processes, increasing system reliability and production stability, by optimizing technological processes and reducing production dependence on imported equipment.

    Keywords: import substitution, converter, oxygen-converter production, steel production, controller, automated control systems

  • Overview of energy storage interconnection topologies and its control methods

    Currently one of the promising trends in the global energy sector is the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) into the existing grid. The use of RES can be favourable in autonomous power systems where fuel costs are high. However the stochastic nature of power generation creates a number of difficulties in maintaining the power balance. To solve this problem, it is proposed to connect a hybrid energy storage system (HESS) consisting of a battery and a supercapacitor to the load busbars. The efficiency of such HESS depends mainly on the way of its connection to the grid and the choice of control method. The article gives an overview of the existing mechanisms for controlling the power consumption of HESS.

    Keywords: Renewable energy, hybrid electricity storage, power converter topology, electricity storage control strategy

  • Implementation of neural network models for predicting performance in a smart greenhouse

    This article explores the introduction and implementation of neural network models in the field of agriculture, with an emphasis on their use in smart greenhouses. Smart greenhouses are innovative systems for controlling the microclimate and other factors affecting plant growth. Using neural networks trained on data on soil moisture, temperature, illumination and other parameters, it is possible to predict future indicators with high accuracy. The article discusses the stages of data collection and preparation, the learning process of neural networks, as well as the practical implementation of this approach. The results of the study highlight the prospects for the introduction of neural networks in the agricultural sector and their important role in optimizing plant growth processes and increasing the productivity of agricultural enterprises.

    Keywords: neural network, predicting indicators, smart greenhouse, artificial intelligence, data modeling, microclimate

  • Analysis of U-Net-Attention and SegGPT neural networks in the problem of crack segmentation in road surface images

    This paper examines and compares two neural networks, U-Net-Attention and SegGPT, which use different attention mechanisms to find relationships between different parts of the input and output data. The U-Net-Attention architecture is a dual-layer attention U-Net neural network, an efficient neural network for image segmentation. It has an encoder and decoder, combined connections between layers and connections that pass through hidden layers, which allows information about the local properties of feature maps to be conveyed. To improve the quality of segmentation, the original U-Net architecture includes an attention layer, which helps to enhance the search for the image features we need. The SegGPT model is based on the Visual Transformers architecture and also uses an attention mechanism. Both models focus attention on important aspects of a problem and can be effective in solving a variety of problems. In this work, we compared their work on segmenting cracks in road surface images to further classify the condition of the road surface as a whole. An analysis and conclusions are also made about the possibilities of using architectural transformers to solve a wide range of problems.

    Keywords: machine learning, Transformer neural networks, U-Net-Attention, SegGPT, roadway condition analysis, computer vision

  • Designing an application to collect data from third-party Internet sources

    This article discusses the basic principles and design patterns of an application for collecting data from third-party sources. Research has been carried out on various methods of obtaining data, including web scraping, using APIs and file parsing. It also describes various approaches to extracting information from structured and unstructured sources.

    Keywords: internet sources, API, parsing, web, headless browser, scraping, etag, data collection

  • Determining the degree of masking of a ball mill based on measuring the vibration acceleration of the drum surface

    The article presents aspects of the development of a device for wirelessly picking up a vibration acceleration signal from the surface of a ball mill drum. The results of measuring vibration acceleration for a ball mill model for various levels of loading with crushed material are presented. According to these results, with an increase in the load of crushed materials relative to the ball, the level of vibration decreases. The work also presents the obtained pie diagrams of the distribution of vibration load across the mill drum, from which one can judge its current operating mode.

    Keywords: ball mill, wireless signal, vibration acceleration, mill loading control

  • Simulation modeling of the relay transmission system of a multi-motor electric drive of a conveyor train

    The modeling of a multi-motor linear electric drive of a conveyor train is considered. A diagram of the simulation model made in the Simulink program is given. Graphs of the speed and force of the electric drive during the relay transmission of the secondary element are given. The conclusion is formulated that the system fulfills the requirements placed on it.

    Keywords: simulation modeling, Simulink, linear asynchronous motor, electric drive, conveyor train, relay transmission

  • Determination of the granulometric composition of the result of drilling and blasting operations in a quarry using neural networks

    The drilling and blasting method is currently the most widely used for mining rocks. An indicator of the high–quality drilling and blasting operations is the uniform granulometric composition of the exploded rock mass - the percentage of oversized ore pieces should be minimal. The percentage of oversized and its increase have a significant impact on the technical processes of transporting rock mass, leading to an increase in the costs of loading and transportation operations and secondary crushing of oversized ore masses. The paper describes the results of a study of methods for determining the granulometric composition of drilling and blasting operations using neural networks of segmentation Unet and FPN. Images taken from UAVs are used for analysis. A method of classifying ore by size has also been developed, which ensures the accuracy of the proportion of correct answers of more than 0.91. The expected result of the introduction of the system for automatic determination of the granulometric composition of drilling and blasting operations is the possibility of more accurate control over the quality of their performance.

    Keywords: granulometric composition, Unet, FPN, classification, segmentation

  • Methodological foundations of working with the Modbus TCP protocol with an example in the high-level Python programming language

    This article explores a method for executing data collection systems based on the widely-used industrial protocol, Modbus TCP. In this configuration, the server is a program emulating the Modbus TCP protocol.To implement the client an algorithm and furnished a practical Python programming illustration that employs a lower-level socket library.

    Keywords: python, socket, modbus

  • Comparative analysis of additive technologies used to form electromechanical structures of functional devices

    The paper provides a comparative analysis of additive technologies in the field of formation of electromechanical designs of functional devices. In particular, the problem of using additive technologies, their relevance in relation to modern needs in different fields of science and technology is put, the essence of additive technological processes for the production of various kinds of products is revealed and a specific design and technological approach for creating a modular product on the basis of these technologies is defined.

    Keywords: additive technologies, printed circuit board, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling , selective laser sintering, stereolithography, digital light processing, direct metal laser sintering, selective laser melting, direct ink writing

  • The use of neural network detectors to prevent accidents at work

    This article discusses the features of the use of neural network detectors in the tasks of recognizing protective helmets and helmets. Nowadays, workplace safety is becoming an increasingly relevant topic, especially in industries with a high level of injuries. There are accidents caused by violations of rules and regulations at work sites, among them cases related to non-compliance with the rules of wearing protective helmets. The article examines methods and algorithms for recognizing protective helmets and helmets, and assesses their effectiveness.

    Keywords: convolutional neural network, object recognition, protective helmets. helmets, SSD, YOLOv5, Faster R-CNN, machine learning, deep learning, image classification

  • Development of a system for detecting areas with defects in the development of corn crops based on photos from UAVs

    In this work, the developed system for detecting areas with defects in the development of corn crops was investigated from a photograph taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) using computer vision. To solve the problem of detecting such sites, the structures of the YOLOv5 and YOLOv8 neural networks were considered. The use of the developed software will reduce labor and time costs for image analysis, which in turn will reduce the response time when problem areas are detected in agricultural fields to achieve higher yields.

    Keywords: instance segmentation, YOLOv5, YOLOv8

  • Determination of the geometry of the room by the impulse response using convolutional neural networks

    Existing methods for determining the geometry of an enclosed space using echolocation assume the presence of a large amount of additional equipment (sound sources and receivers) in the room. This paper investigates a method for determining the geometry of enclosed spaces using sound location. The method does not assume the presence of a priori knowledge about the surrounding space. One sound source and one sound receiver were used to create and capture real impulse characteristics. A microphone was used as a sound receiver and a finger snap was used as a sound source to produce the impulse response. In this work, we used convolutional neural networks that were trained on a large dataset consisting of 48000 impulse responses and a number of room geometry parameters corresponding to them. The trained convolutional neural network was tested on the recorded impulse responses of a real room and showed accuracy ranging from 92.2 to 98.7% in estimating room size from various parameters.

    Keywords: convolutional neural networks, room geometry, echolocation, impulse response, robotics, recognition, contactless methods of measuring objects, sonar, geometry prediction, virtual reality

  • Development of a solar tracking system and cooling system for photovoltaic module based on fuzzy logic

    This paper presents the concept of using fuzzy control methods in the construction of energy efficient systems based on photovoltaic modules. An analysis was made of methods to improve efficiency in the case of weather in Vietnam on a sunny summer day for photovoltaic modules. The results show that the efficiency of the proposed system is increased by 27.91%, 23.30% and 4.95% compared to the PV module, respectively, with a fixed tilt system, a water-cooled system, and a solar tracking system. The simulation results can serve as a prerequisite for future experimental models.

    Keywords: Photovoltaic module, thermoelectric model, solar tracking, water cooling, efficiency, fuzzy logic

  • Architecture and model of an agricultural wireless sensor network

    The paper describes the composition of a wireless sensor network for agricultural purposes, including a sensor node, an actuator node and a coordinator node. Based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, a hybrid network architecture with node synchronization via a time slot mechanism is proposed. The WSN model is proposed, which includes the forming functions of nodes, which makes it possible to abandon the matrix of energy characteristics and describe the elements of the network in a simplified form.

    Keywords: wireless sensor network, sensor node, coordinator node, network structure, wireless node architecture, wireless network parameters, network model

  • Hybrid method of dynamic packet routing in a wireless sensor network

    The paper proposes a hybrid method of packet routing in a wireless sensor network based on a genetic algorithm that allows you to build a routing table taking into account restrictions on the maximum number of transmissions through each node of the network and, as a result, increase its energy efficiency. The results of experimental studies on BSS with a random configuration of nodes in space are presented and it is shown that the congestion of data packet relay nodes is reduced by 30-40% with an increase in the total length of routes by 10%.

    Keywords: wireless sensor network, sensor node, coordinator node, network structure, packet routing, energy efficiency of a wireless network, network model

  • About the development of a hybrid intelligent control unit for a stepper extreme controller

    The aim of the work is to increase the productivity of the iron ore concentrate dehydration process. In the course of previous research, an automated system with individual control of each vacuum filter technological parameters was developed. In this paper, it is proposed to supplement this system of an extreme step regulator hybrid intelligent control unit. A structural and functional scheme and an algorithm for the functioning of the control system have also been developed. The implementation of the developed control system will improve the productivity of the vacuum filter, reduce the wear of the actuators, reduce the specific consumption of energy resources used, and save the financial resources of the enterprise. The proposed control system can be adapted for a large class of technological units of a similar principle of operation used in various industries.

    Keywords: iron ore concentrate dehydration, disk vacuum filter, artificial neural network, fuzzy neural network, automated control system, individual regulation, extreme regulator, vacuum, pulp density, vacuum filter productivity sludge moisture

  • Design of a stand for testing the seismic resistance of butterfly check valves

    Tests to determine the seismic stability of elements of pipeline systems, in particular pipeline fittings, are included in the list of those necessary to confirm the operability of the element. In this study, a stand was developed for testing to determine the seismic stability of butterfly check valves, which are a type of pipeline fittings. A finite element analysis was carried out, data on maximum deformations, stresses and displacements of structural elements were obtained, and the response of the installation table to seismic impact was calculated. The resulting displacement values of the table structure do not exceed the limit values specified by the technical requirements and do not lead to distortion of the structure or destruction of joints, which makes it possible to move from design to manufacturing and commissioning of the stand.

    Keywords: vibration tests, seismic resistance test bench, pipeline, pipeline valves, swing back gate, mathematical modeling, finite element method, strength calculation, simulation modeling, stress-strain state

  • Implementation of a real physical object control controller using methods of the neuroevolutionary algorithm NEAT

    In this experiment, a solver (NEAT) and a simulator (an inverted pendulum cart object) are implemented, where the solver will influence the object in order to keep it in a stable state, i.e. don't let the pendulum fall. The main objective of the experiment is to study the possibility of implementing a simulator of a real physical object and use it to determine the target function of the neuroevolutionary algorithm NEAT. Solving this problem will make it possible to implement controllers based on the NEAT algorithm, capable of controlling real physical objects.

    Keywords: machine learning, non-revolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithms, neural networks

  • The automatic equalization of loads in multi motor electric drives

    Multi motor electric drives are the systems, in which the torques from two or more motors are summarized. This summarisation may be done direct on common output shaft of indirect, for example, on the common load through individual transmiisions. In such a systems the problem of common torque distribution among motors exists. Usually this problem is being solved by equal distribution of torques among motors. There are some ways to achieve equal torques. One of them is overlaping of mechanical characteristics of motors by influencing separatly to the hardness and the speed of mechanical charecteristic of motor.

    Keywords: multimotor drive, load equalization, automatic control, mechanical characteristic, mathematical description of load distribution, load distribution observing

  • An effective method for automated software testing of consumer electronics devices using cloud devices

    In the context of stable demand for consumer electronics, current methods of automated software testing in production often prove to be inefficient, leading to an increase in software errors. This paper examines an enhanced method of automated testing using Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and cloud technologies. The main objective of the research is to create a universal and effective system for automated software testing, capable of scaling and adapting to various platforms and libraries. The results of the experiment confirmed the possibility of integrating the described method with existing testing systems without significant modifications, ensuring a higher efficiency of the testing process and a reduction in its duration.

    Keywords: automated testing, consumer electronics devices, consumer electronics, software, remote procedure call, software quality, software testing, cloud devices, software production, testing task manager

  • A comprehensive criterion for evaluating the effectiveness of programmable logic controllers

    The choice of equipment of technological enterprises, especially when the characteristics of the equipment are close in values, remains an urgent task. In our work, to evaluate the effectiveness of programmable logic controllers (PLCs), a comprehensive criterion for evaluating efficiency is proposed, as well as a method for calculating it using numerical methods. To calculate the complex efficiency criterion, the values of the significant characteristics of the controllers selected by us are converted into points on a linear scale. To refine the calculation results, we applied one of the Newton-Cotes numerical methods, namely the trapezoid method. Next, we used the method of cubic interpolation of the obtained curves to increase the accuracy of calculations. The proposed method is simple and does not require a lot of calculations. At the same time, its application makes it possible to calculate complex PLC efficiency criteria based on characteristics relevant to a particular control process.

    Keywords: programmable logic controller, characteristics, numerical methods, trapezoid method, cubic interpolation method, aggregation of characteristics, ABAK PLC, Siemens PLC, OWEN PLC

  • A method for determining the elemental composition of sediment from waste from galvanic production

    The article presents the prerequisites for the relevance of the processing and disposal of galvanic sludge generated from industrial enterprises, which in turn occupies numerous areas of land for storage, which harms the environment. An overview of the methods of processing and disposal of electroplating waste, including physical, chemical and biological processes. Experimental studies of galvanic sludge sediment are presented. The precipitate is a mixture of crystalline CaCO3, SiO2 and an amorphous phase, which is not determined by phase analysis. Modern advanced technologies for the processing and disposal of galvanic sludge are presented.

    Keywords: galvanic sludge waste, automation, control, methods, sediment thermogram

  • Set-theoretic representation of intellectual property cores in computer-aided design system for integrated circuits based on reconfigurable systems-on-a-chip

    The reconfigurable systems-on-a-chip (RSoC) includes hard and soft intellectual property cores (IP-cores). Hard IP-cores are placed on the specified positions on the chip and have a predetermined functionality. Soft IP-cores are developed using the logical blocks (LB) of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) on the RSoC. Both types of IP-cores have different features. Hard IP-cores have configurations that can be programmed. Soft IP-cores use the base RSoC specialized resources. All IP-cores features must be considered at various stages of the design flow of user circuits based on the RSoC. Any modes of the RSoC IP-cores should be extracted from the functional description of the user circuit during logical synthesis. The features of the base chip architecture and specialized routing resources must be considered during placement and routing. In this paper, a software-oriented set-theoretic model of IP-cores is presented. The model makes it possible to represent IP-cores in computer-aided design (CAD) system at different stages of design flow of user circuit based on RSoC and to map architecture-independent IP-cores of a user circuit to IP-cores on the base chip. The model combines formalized representations of the base chip components, architecture-independent and architecture-dependent parameterized IP-cores for the logical synthesis, as well as IP-cores for the layout synthesis. Also, the model has several distinctive features. The first feature is the availability of the relative coordinates of the soft IP-cores elements. These coordinates allow to take into account the RSoC architectural features at the placement stage. The second feature is that an information about specialized routing resources and interconnections of the user and base circuits. This information allows to establish a correspondence between IP-core and RSoC connections regardless of the routing resources type.

    Keywords: reconfigurable system-on-a-chip, intellectual property core, field programmable gate array, computer-aided design system, set-theoretic model, formalization