The aim of the work was to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of a typical 2-room apartment and find the optimal solution for redevelopment. As an example, we selected a typical planning solution from the developer of a two-room apartment in a multi-storey residential building. The article considers a variant of apartment remodeling in order to improve the housing characteristics of the premises. It is concluded that the typical rational solution for reconstruction is the reorganization of auxiliary premises in favor of residential premises, changing their configurations. The logic of applying the principles of free planning is reduced to creating conditions for comfortable spatial interaction of functional zones.
Keywords: Planning solution, apartment, functional areas, ergonomics, remodeling, living area, wet area, interior, visualization, furniture arrangement, redevelopment, area, insolation, installation, dismantling, building codes
The article discusses the possibility of using new generation lightweight materials in construction. The author analyzed the distinctive features of membrane structures, revealed the advantages and disadvantages of the ETFE film. Based on the analysis, it was concluded that these materials and technologies are an easy and promising alternative to traditional ones.
Keywords: innovative facade systems, textile architecture, membrane structures, ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene copolymer film, energy efficiency
The authors ' analysis of scientific publications of domestic and foreign specialists revealed the main goals and directions of further research and ways to ensure them. A review of the scientific literature on the technologies of energy-efficient facade systems in various climatic zones, including in extreme construction conditions, was also made. The characteristic features of modern facade systems are revealed, the advantages and disadvantages of the applied structures and materials are determined. The authors conclude that the choice of a particular type of facade system is inextricably linked with the issues of economic feasibility of the object under construction and the technical, architectural and aesthetic requirements imposed on it. Classifications of plaster and translucent facade systems that provide a high level of energy efficiency of modern construction systems have been developed. The technologies of energy-efficient transforming and adaptive facade systems are consistently and comprehensively disclosed, and the positive dynamics of their development is revealed. Attention is focused on the fact that it is the external enclosing structures that act as an intermediate link between the room and the external environment, and therefore it is necessary to apply such structural solutions of facade systems that could optimize the temperature and humidity regime inside the building in accordance with changes in environmental conditions. The relevance of the monograph, the goals and objectives of the study are noted. The main approaches to ensuring energy efficiency and resource saving of building systems at various stages of their functioning are highlighted. Improving the energy efficiency of built-up areas and residential areas. The relevance of the reviewed monograph is associated with global changes in the information and technological potential of construction science, the improvement of technologies for the construction of new and reconstruction of existing construction systems and structures that meet modern requirements of energy efficiency as the basis of economic feasibility in the subsequent operation of buildings and structures. The problems of energy efficiency of buildings and their solutions at all stages of the life cycle have always been global in nature, inextricably linked with the growing needs of society in terms of improving the quality of the organization of internal space, ensuring a comfortable existence and human activity. The authors ' analysis of scientific publications of domestic and foreign specialists revealed the main goals and directions of further research and ways to ensure them. A review of the scientific literature on the technologies of energy-efficient facade systems in various climatic zones, including in extreme construction conditions, was also made. The characteristic features of modern facade systems are revealed, the advantages and disadvantages of the applied structures and materials are determined. The authors conclude that the choice of a particular type of facade system is inextricably linked with the issues of economic feasibility of the object under construction and the technical, architectural and aesthetic requirements imposed on it. Classifications of plaster and translucent facade systems that provide a high level of energy efficiency of modern construction systems have been developed. The technologies of energy-efficient transforming and adaptive facade systems are consistently and comprehensively disclosed, and the positive dynamics of their development is revealed. Attention is focused on the fact that it is the external enclosing structures that act as an intermediate link between the room and the external environment, and therefore it is necessary to apply such structural solutions of facade systems that could optimize the temperature and humidity regime inside the building in accordance with changes in environmental conditions. The structure, content and scope of the monograph are given.
Keywords: relevance, research, purpose and objectives, review, analysis, presentation style, resource-saving technologies, energy urban planning efficiency, energy security, energy efficiency of the territorial space
The article discusses the constructive and conceptual solutions associated with the implementation of the main devices of the central air conditioner, working in conjunction with the chiller. The peculiarity of the implementation of these devices is dictated by the use of solar energy. The receivers of solar energy are solar collectors, in which the heating medium is heated, which is used as a heat source in the chiller generator.
Keywords: solar energy, central air conditioner, chiller, absorption refrigeration machines, vacuum solar collector
Various options for connecting wooden structures are described. Examples of the use of various compounds, the most common today, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of such compounds are analyzed, and the technical characteristics of the elements used are given. Advantages and disadvantages of joints of wooden structures with the use of composite materials are described.
Keywords: wooden structures, joints of wooden structures, analysis, mechanical connections, comparison, load, strength, nagel, cool connection, mating, toothed plates
Proper cost estimation, monitoring and control is vital to the success of construction projects. BIM projects allow you to facilitate, visualize, and demonstrate work results. In the estimate documentation, BIM technologies also allow you to improve the process of working on a project. The article discusses the advantages of using BIM - programs for making estimates on the example of Avtodesk Revit and 5D estimates, indicates the main stages of work in these programs. Fewer errors and less lead time are key factors for integrating these technologies into construction pricing.
Keywords: BIM, estimate, 5D смета, construction, design, pricing
The analysis of the functional purpose of high-rise buildings in Russia and abroad is presented. The dynamics of the growth of construction of ultra-tall buildings for the period 2000-2020 is considered. The trend towards the use of composite materials in the construction of ultra-high buildings is revealed. The dynamics of growth of construction of high-rise buildings in Russia is considered. Revealed changes in the functional purpose of high-rise buildings in Russia on the example of the tallest buildings in the Russian Federation. Changes in the use of construction technologies and materials in the construction of high-rise buildings and their impact on the quality of buildings under construction are presented.
Keywords: high-rise buildings, construction, building materials
Space grid structures are widely used for covering large-span public and industrial buildings and allow for a wide variety of structural and architectural forms. The article presents and solves the problem of finding a design solution for a space grid coating structure of minimum mass for a given steel class, element cross-section type, and loading conditions. The location of the supports is considered as a variable parameter, which leads to a different stress-strain state of the structure, and, accordingly, different cross-sections of the supporting elements.The change in the stress-strain state of the roof space structure when changing the location of the supports was studied. In total, 10 options for the arrangement of supports of a space structure with a size of 24x24 m and 7 options for a space structure with a size of 30x30 m were considered. After the load was applied, the VAT of the structure was determined numerically, the cross-section of the elements was selected and their mass was calculated. Then a comparison of the various options for supporting by the weight of the structure was made. In the article, the optimization problem was solved according to the optimality criterion of metal consumption, restrictions in the form of overall dimensions, topology and strength conditions.
Keywords: space grid structures, optimization, metal consumption, control parameter
In connection with the increase in production activity in the winter and in remote areas, in regions close to the regions of the Far North, the use of new building materials is required. One of the most common building materials is concrete. This article describes an experimental study of the concrete substitute "HILST" for compliance with the manufacturer's declared characteristics: the ability to mix, hardening at room temperature and under adverse conditions.
Keywords: building materials, concrete, concrete substitute, HILST, mixing, experiment, adhesion, building chemistry, hydrophobicity, foundation
Currently, urbanization causes an increase in urban density and creates new opportunities for the socio-economic development of society. However, urban development changes the natural relief: it increases the roughness of the underlying surface (for example, it forms basins against the background of a flat relief), it includes many vertical surfaces, and creates rugged terrain. It results in the formation of urban heat and dry islands; it changes the precipitation rate,their frequency and intensity. Thermal conditions of cities are varied within the city itself, and the study of diversification of the intra-urban microclimate is of extreme importance for well-being of citizens and assessing the real energy demand of buildings. This requires new approached to modeling the urban microclimate, since the a set of different factors influence its changes and developement.
Keywords: urban microclimate, urban density, environment, solar radiation, aeration regime, thermal conditions, urban heat island, wind speed, building; urbanization
The article presents an assessment of dust collection equipment in terms of technological, economic, and operational characteristics. The criteria for this assessment and methods for calculating indicators that characterize the effectiveness of its use in the reconstruction of buildings carried out in cramped conditions of urban development are determined. The development of design solutions for the reconstruction of objects should not reduce the level of safety of builders and personnel of the reconstruction object, as well as cause damage to the environment, in particular, air pollution with dust particles from construction processes. The introduction of cost-effective means of combating atmospheric air pollution in design solutions, as well as the effective organization of construction production, which reduces the environmental burden on the territory, will allow the contractor to increase its competitive advantage when participating in tenders and determining the contract price for the reconstruction of buildings. The choice of cost-effective protective measures will save costs, subsequently determining the profit from the reconstruction of the building. The economic calculation given in the article allows you to determine the amount of operating costs in each individual case, and make a rational choice from the economic point of view of purchasing and using equipment in the course of work.
Keywords: environmental safety, environmental monitoring, atmospheric air protection, ecology in construction, dust suppression, feasibility study, dust collection systems, labor protection in construction
The article discusses the concept of green building, its basic principles, assessment methods. The technologies used in green building are presented. The technologies for collecting rainwater, using solar energy and improving energy efficiency through the use of recuperators, their types and principles of operation, applicable to homes for the disabled and the elderly are considered.
Keywords: green building, construction, eco-friendly construction, green technologies, energy efficiency, ecological environment
A study of the operation of the water heating system of the Naryshkin bastion of the Peter and Paul Fortress was carried out. The results of measurements of temperature and relative humidity of indoor air are presented. Based on the research results, a three-dimensional model of room No. 3 of the Naryshkin Bastion was built, which was used in numerical modeling using the STAR-CCM + hydrodynamic computer complex. Recommendations for improving the heat and humidity regime are given, prospects for further research of the object are identified.
Keywords: object of historical and architectural heritage, microclimate parameters, water heating system, thermal regime, STAR-CCM +
The article is devoted to the issue of effective design solutions for shallow foundations. Options for optimizing standard designs of strip and columnar foundations are considered. A new configuration of the foundation with a stepped sole is proposed, which has a greater bearing capacity and less resource intensity. This effect is achieved due to a more uniform distribution of contact stresses along the base of the foundation and the accumulation of significant lateral friction. Due to the cross-sectional shape of such foundations, the volume of excavation and formwork is significantly reduced.
Keywords: foundation, construction, shallow foundation, strip foundation, column foundation, modified geometry, non-planar footing, soil mechanics, construction efficiency
The results of simulation of stabilization of landslide slope by method of finite elements are considered in the article. The slope stabilization system includes retaining reinforced concrete structures (newly erected and reconstructed) with an anchor support of the TITAN system.
Keywords: landslide, landslide slope, landslide circus, retaining structures, anchor support, anchor, mathematical modeling, geomechanical modeling, finite element method
The analysis of the results of large-scale experimental studies carried out at the Department of Reinforced Concrete and Stone Structures of DSTU is presented. It is aimed at determining the possibility of effective implementation of new composite materials in construction. This article deals with the issues of strength and stiffness of bending reinforced concrete elements with internal working reinforcement made of composite materials, or reinforced with external glass and carbon fiber reinforcement. The possibility of using coal and fiberglass working reinforcement for conventional bending elements in which the value of the maximum permissible deflections is not decisive has been established. The high efficiency of external reinforcement when reinforcing reinforced concrete structures with composite materials has also been proven.
Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, composite materials, reinforcement, concrete, strength, deformability
Analysis and comparison of Russian and European standards for mechanical strength of windows, such as resistance to racking and static torsion, are provided. Classification of mechanical properties of windows according to EN 13115:2020, normative characteristics of resistance to static loads according to GOST 23166-99 and recommendations of Quality Assurance Association for Windows and Doors (Germany) are compared. Russian requirements for resistance to racking are higher than 4th class, but for resistance to static torsion are lower than 2nd class of EN 13115, while 3rd class is recommended as minimum by German RAL-Association. Analysis of methodology for mechanical tests in accordance with GOST 24033-2018 and GOST 24033-80 is done. Concluded that refinement of methodology and criteria for determining test results with taking into account the provisions of European standards is necessary, as well as conduction of further research in the field of influence of mechanical strength of windows on other qualities, such as air permeability.
Keywords: window, translucent structure, enclosing structure, standardization, standard, mechanical strength, racking, static torsion
In modern construction, the task of improving the energy efficiency of urban-type buildings is becoming increasingly important, since urbanization increases the volume of energy consumption. When solving issues of energy efficiency of high-rise buildings, it is necessary to take into account such factors as the location of the object, orientation to the cardinal points, functional purpose, volumetric-spatial and engineering solutions to save energy, reduce heat loss and create comfortable conditions inside buildings and in the local area ... In part, these problems can be solved by optimizing the geometric, technical, including the heat engineering parameters of the building envelope, paying attention to the fact that their characteristics must be changed depending on specific climatic factors. The article analyzes several high-rise buildings in the city of Moscow. As an example, calculations have been performed and graphs of temperature and wind speed changes along the height of one of the buildings are presented. An increase in wind speed and a decrease in temperature create special conditions that affect the heat loss of high-rise buildings, which must be taken into account when thermal protection of external enclosing structures.
Keywords: wind, buildings, structures, landscaping, space, climate, region, analysis, landscape, aeration, ecology
The use of adhesive joints for reinforcing elements of steel structures is discussed. Adhesive joints provide the least costly way of joining elements of any material without disturbing their structure. Of particular interest is the reinforcement of structures in stretched zones using high-strength fibers such as glass and carbon fibers, as well as polymers reinforced with them. The main problem in this case lies in the peculiarities of the distribution of shear forces along the length of the adhesive layer. The article discusses a way to solve this issue.
Keywords: adhesive bond, adhesive layer, shear strength, analytical solution, finite element method, high strength fiber, carbon fiber, glass fiber
Recently, the issues of improving the environmental situation in the urban environment have become more relevant than ever. "Green architecture" gets popularity not only in Russia but over the world as well. The necessity of this type of architecture causes the need to improve air quality and environmental factors of urban conditions. Most often, greening the roof of a building or greening the facades is used for ecologization, so-called the element of wall greening and also greening of vertical surfaces of buildings (phyto facade).
Keywords: green architecture, vertical greening, green wall, waving plants, green screens, phyto facades
Assessment of flexural strength is important in the design of steel beams. In this paper, analytical studies have been carried out to determine the flexural strength of conventional steel I-beams and steel corrugated beams. An experimental program was analyzed for four beams with a simple support and different web configurations (flat or corrugated) and different flange thicknesses (thin or thick). In the course of experimental work, the effect of a decrease in the bending capacity of a beam due to a corrugated web was determined. To simulate the tested samples and check the results of the experimental part of the work, a nonlinear finite element technique was used. After receiving the results, the following conclusions were made. First, the bending capacity of the corrugated steel beam is less than that of the conventional steel I-beam, in the range of 10 to 20%. Second, the flexure of the flat-web steel beam showed local buckling of the flange followed by local buckling of the web, in contrast to the steel girder with a corrugated web, which previously showed only local buckling of the flange. And third, the finite element model can simulate the behavior of steel beams, especially in the elastic stage, with an acceptable degree of accuracy.
Keywords: steel beam design, flexural strength, corrugated web, flange thickness, bending capacity, finite element technique, web configuration
Southern cities with hot and calm climate conditions, located on difficult terrain due to the lack of sufficient aeration, are in an extreme ecological situation. Urban construction on difficult terrain affects the established local microclimate by changing the structure of the environment and hydrogeological conditions. In addition, the development of urban space and the construction of modern multi-storey buildings significantly affect the aerodynamics of the environment and ecology. In the article, on the basis of the analysis of the climatic parameters of the cities of Sochi, Makhachkala and field observations, the conditions under which the local air circulation is formed, contributing to the improvement of the ecological situation, are revealed. Models of the formation of aeration of urban space for different types of landscaping have been constructed The analysis performed will make it possible to correctly assess the factors influencing the formation of aeration of thermal origin and their role in improving the ecology of cities with hot and calm climate conditions.
Keywords: wind, buildings, structures, landscaping, space, climate, region, analysis, landscape, aeration, ecology
The parameters of the mixers widely used in the practice of water treatment are given. A fundamentally new design of the mixing unit is proposed, which provides a process of rapid and complete mixing of reagents in a thin layer of a rotating flow of a pre-created water-air mixture using the method of concentrated coagulation. At the same time dispersion of air bubbles is carried out. A detailed description of the design, operating principle and basic design parameters of the mixer used in the mixing unit.
Keywords: natural water, coagulant, mixer, concentrated coagulation, aeration, velocity gradient, rotational motion
The article considers the trends in the development of coastal management in the United States, great Britain and Australia, and analyzes the current situation of the coastal zone of Volgograd. Recommendations are offered based on the experience of foreign countries.
Keywords: coastal zone, management program, coastline, waterfront area environment, sustainable planning, design approach, architectural environment, waterfront
The water recreation industry is actively developing. An individual pool at home is also not uncommon for a long time, because everyone wants to live in comfortable conditions. Modern country houses place the pool on the ground floor of the premises on the plot next to the house. Despite the financial costs and time for maintenance, the health benefits of the pool, as well as the variety of leisure activities through taking water procedures or playing with children, are a very powerful argument in order to arrange a pool at home.The number of pools is increasing and the number of pools built with defects is also increasing. it may be because use low-quality construction materials and reduce their volumes, perform work by unskilled employees, violate the requirements of construction documents of the project. therefore it is necessary to carry out construction and technical examination.
Keywords: construction, swimming pool, construction and technical expertise, regulatory documentation, defects