The reorganization of existing coatings of public buildings into the “green roof” technology is possible in cases of the generation of an extensive type of green roofing system and, extremely rarely, of an intensive type. To clarify to the above, the load from the green roof of the extensive type in a water-saturated condition on the bearing part of the structural system of the building is 80 ... 100 kg / m2 with a substrate thickness of not more than 0.07 ... 0.15 m. Therefore, in most cases the introduction of this type of green Coverage in public buildings of the existing buildings is feasible.
Keywords: green roof, thermal resistance, strength of parts of the structure, functional zone, limit states, construction, technology and organization of construction
The article presents data on the effect of external composite reinforcement of reinforced concrete columns on their deformation properties. It is established that the results of calculations of the reinforced samples according to the deformation norms in force have significant discrepancies with experiment. Based on the analysis of the results of experiments, proposals have been introduced into the normative calculation of deflections, which take into account the type and percentage of composite reinforcement and ensure good agreement between the experimental and theoretical data.
Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, composite material, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, external reinforcement, deformations, deflections, compressed elements
The method of parametric modeling and design based on the example of a building is studied, the architectural image of which is a set of circular helical and cylindrical surfaces defined by coordinates through functions of the corresponding surfaces in the SAPPHIRE software. Alternative methods for specifying surfaces in the SAPPHIRE PC, AutoCAD with subsequent export to the LIRA PC for engineering calculations of the frame of the building for various combinations of loads by the finite element method are presented. The object of the study is a 360-meter-high building with a hardness core in the form of a cylindrical shell of revolution. The height of the floor is 3 m. Around the rigid shell there are three circular helical surfaces that "rise" in a spiral upward along with the core of rigidity to a mark of 360 meters from the level of the ground floor. One of the most universal ways to create a surface is to specify it through a formula, because you can easily change the shape and appearance of the surface without manually editing the geometry of the model in the drawing. The development of the parametric architecture calls for the creation of new approaches to the calculation of unique buildings and structures, the improvement of software complexes that implement the finite element method, and the appearance of new varieties of finite elements with curvilinear boundaries.
Keywords: parametric architecture, surface, shape of the object, shell, curve, model, geometry, program, formula surface, helical surface
The article provides an overview of the main methods for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. The main causes of heat loss in the building are revealed. The ways of solving the problems of energy consumption of new objects are shown: installation of alternative energy sources, improvement of thermal insulation of enclosing structures, installation of high-efficiency ventilation with heat recovery, use of energy-saving windows. The legislative base and state programs stimulating energy-efficient construction in our country are considered. A study was made of modern methods of building buildings, allowing to reduce energy and resource costs
Keywords: energy efficient buildings, energy resources, heat insulation, heat loss, geothermal heating, solar collector, energy saving windows
The article deals with the effectiveness of high-strength concrete for the design of concrete columns on the example of 20-storey residential building in Rostov-on-Don. The results of the ground floor columns calculations for different types of concrete strength are presented. The columns are presented in two variations. The first variation is 600x600 B25 from the second underground floor to the tenth floor and 500x500 B25 from the eleventh to twenty-fifth floor. The second one is 500x500 B60 from the second underground floor to the seventh floor, 400x400 B60 from the eighth to the eleventh and 400x400 B25 from the twelfth to the twentieth floor. The analysis of the study results showed the technical and economic efficiency of the use of high-strength concrete (in particular, concrete class B60) due to increasing the strength characteristics of the compressed elements. This is also due to reducing the cross-sectional size and weight of the columns, saving reinforcement, causing a reduction in the cost of elements as a whole.
Keywords: high-strength concrete, compressed elements, construction of tall buildings, columns, Lira-SAPR, calculation of structures
The article deals with the problems of using structural systems with outriggers for high-rise buildings. The analysis of various designs is carried out, the features of their work are specified, the advantages and disadvantages are identified, the areas of their application.
Keywords: high-rise building, structural system, outrigger, skyscraper, column, core of rigidity, strength, reliability, horizontal load, aerodynamics
The article considers the use of renewable energy sources in construction in general and in high-rise unique buildings. Such an approach will allow to design and build buildings in which integrated renewable energy sources can be harmoniously entered into all aspects of construction. This is especially true for high-rise buildings. With the implementation of energy-efficient technologies, the main drawback - high energy consumption - will be cut off. The article analyzes non-traditional sources of energy, such as wind, solar, land, water and biomass. The relevance of their application in construction and influence on all aspects of the project is proved: town-planning, functional, space-planning, architectural and artistic, constructive and engineering.
Keywords: renewable energy source, high-rise building, bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, aerodynamics, energy-efficient technology, architectural and artistic appearance, planning solution, optimal shape of the building.aerodynamics
The paper deals with statically determinate and statically indeterminate reinforced beams of a rectangular cross-section of bimodule material loaded with a uniformly distributed load. Since for heterogeneous materials, the elastic modulus for tension and compression are different, the work aimed to study the influence of different boundary conditions in statically indeterminate beams on SSS. It is shown that the magnitude of the maximum normal stresses is less than the stresses found without taking into account the bimodule nature of the beam material, both in statically determinate and in statically indeterminate beams. The maximum normal stress and maximum deflection decrease with the transition to a statically indeterminate beam from a similarly statically determined beam by replacing the supports. The method used in work makes it possible to clarify the calculation of strength and rigidity, taking into account the bimodule nature of the material of the reinforced beams, and also to select the optimal fastening of the beams that ensure the bearing capacity of the structure with material saving.
Keywords: reinforced beam, heterogeneity, bimodule material, stress-strain state, normal stresses, deflection, statically indeterminate scheme, bearing capacity, strength, deformability
the article presents the ways of implementation of the strategy focused on the optimization of the process of heat transfer of solar installations, with the applied in their device combined heat exchange panel of aluminum profile elements tightly crimping copper tubes with coolant. Based on the comparative analysis of the two configurations of this device, the methods of heat transfer intensification from the absorbing surface to the working medium in flat-type solar collectors are proposed
Keywords: energy saving, efficiency, optimization, heat transfer, heat capacity, heat exchange panel, heat exchange, solar installation, solar collector, alternative energy sources
An actual problem of the lack of green spaces in modern cities is considered. Some ways of applying gardening in the structure of the building are suggested, which can solve the indicated problem. The most detailed consideration is the reception of horizontal external landscaping, examples of domestic and foreign experience are given.
Keywords: Green architecture, green spaces, vertical landscaping, atrium landscaping, horizontal outdoor landscaping, house-garden decoration of building facades, roofs in operation
The article presents calculation of the cost of overlappings from LSTK and wooden ones. The floors of the two-storey house with a span and overlap with a span of 12 m were calculated. Calculation of the cost of materials is presented for each option. In conclusion, conclusions were drawn on the rational use of material types for each of the calculated spans.
Keywords: light steel thin-walled structures, LSTK ceiling, wooden flooring, reduced characteristics, effective cross-section, construction
The technique of calculating the metal corrugated structures using the finite element method for an axisymmetric load is considered in the article. One-dimensional finite elements in the form of truncated cones are used. Calculations are performed using the program developed by the authors in the Matlab package. An example of calculation of a ground well rigidly clamped in the base under the action of ground pressure is given. The sinusoidal profile of the corrugation is considered. The graphs of changes in bending moments and ring forces are presented. For a smooth shell of the same thickness, the bending moment in the pinch was 30.3% higher compared to the corrugated, and the maximum value of the ring force was 15.7% higher.
Keywords: metal corrugated structures, cylindrical shell, finite element method, axisymmetric problem, soil well, shell theory, edge effect
The description of information exchange methods between CAD and CAE systems is presented. The description of the modular system of design and strength analysis of geodesic shells GeoTran is given. Translation of geometric models from ArchiCAD to Patran/Nastran/Patran has drawbacks. It is proposed to implement the translation of geometric models in a neutral SAT format. Developed a translator geometric models of single-contour geodetic shells from ArchiCAD in SAT format. The translator allows you to automate the exchange of information between the CAD system ArchiCAD and various CAE systems designed for strength analysis.
Keywords: data exchange between CAD and CAE systems, neutral file, SAT and OBJ formats, geodesic shells, translation of geometric models
The paper presents modern techniques of the methodology of system approach to training. The paper presents an analysis of the features of the methodology of research work by students of the College as an element of an integrated system of education in the design and construction of equipment for the construction of pipelines and installation of bored piles. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the methods of possible practical cooperation of secondary vocational and higher education systems in the system of research and development work.
Keywords: research work of students, efficiency, pipe-laying crane, suspended cargo handling device, analysis, design features
This article describes the operation of panels from wood, sheathing from sheets and under the conditions of shear fixing in the form of ribs, an examination of the energy method that allows to determine the shear deformations of panels made of wood. Could get dependencies that determine the effort. They occur on each nail, nailed to the contour and to the inner edges of the panel. Proceeding from this, we developed a computer program that determines the numerical values of the angles by the method of successive approximations.
Keywords: wood panels, plywood coatings, shear forces and deflections, energy method, computer program
The article deals with the development of a mathematical model for reducing the cost of building heat storage tanks by using the refrigerating capacity of liquefied natural gas (LNG)
Keywords: liquefied natural gas, LNG, special fortifications, SPS, full isolation mode, heat storage substance, TAB
The article is devoted to the task of searching for the design solution of the structural coating plate. Structural plates are widely used to cover single-storey structures and have a wide variety of structural and architectural forms. The choice of minimum weight design is based on the VAT control method. As the regulators adopted the location of the columns and the class of steel. Depending on the number and location of the columns on which the structural plate rests, the forces in the structural elements change and accordingly the cross-sectional area and mass of the structure change. Four variants of the arrangement of the columns and three versions of the class of steel were considered. For each design variant, the design was calculated numerically, the cross-section was selected, and the mass was determined. Based on the accepted criterion of the effectiveness of the design solution - metal consumption, the most effective design solution was adopted with the arrangement of columns along the perimeter of the coating in steps of one cell.
Keywords: space grid structures for roofs, regulation of stresses, optimization, metal consumption, criterion of optimality
In the article are examined structural elements of prefabricated dwelling house with wooden frame which simplify installation process of house and reduce needs for financial, mechanical and human resources.
Keywords: wood-frame house construction, wooden structures, prefabricated house, price reduction of wooden structures
A constructive solution of the walls of wooden houses from round logs or a profiled beam, which is installed vertically (wooden element) is considered. It is proposed to arrange two longitudinal milled grooves of a rectangular shape located in the diametral plane of the section of the log for the installation of sheet plywood keys, which makes it possible to include in the joint work adjacent contiguous elements when working on bending from the plane of the wall. The variant of the strapping device, it is proposed to use metal rolling profiles of Channel and I-sections, connected with metal tube elements (box section) mounted in the corners of the frame.
Keywords: round log, profiled beam, sheet plywood keys, tubular section elements
New construction materials and products require research aimed at eliminating design and usage difficulties associated with the lack of regulatory documentation. In this article, an attempt is made to extend the effect of domestic standards on new types of sheet materials and types of nails used in wooden frame housing.
Keywords: wooden structures, nagel, wooden panels, wooden layered diaphragms, nailing connections, light frame house building
The progressive destruction has enormous economic and social consequences. The problem of finding the optimal way to protect high-rise buildings from the development of a chain of avalanche-like destruction process has become of great importance due to the increase in the height of such buildings. In this work the method of protection of buildings from progressive destruction at which the technology of amplification by means of weights and built-in power frameworks is used is investigated.
Keywords: Progressive destruction, protection of multi-storey buildings, combined reinforcement, strands, built-in power frames
Short data on efficiency of a fibrobeton on the basis of heavy quartz sand are provided in work. Taking into account existence of huge reserves of natural porous fillers (the tufa, pumice, pummitsit, etc.) in various regions of Russia and also the fillers received on the basis of industry waste the relevance of a research of a stalefibrobeton with easily concrete matrixes is proved. Experimental selection of optimum composition of concrete on the basis of tuff filler of the Kamensk field of Kabardino-Balkar Republic regarding his use as a matrix of a stalefibrotufobeton (SFTB) is executed . The picked-up structure has been used for creation of skilled combined and monolithic samples of beams which should be tested. During formation of beams control samples of a stalefibrotufobeton have been selected and tested. Results of tests of control samples for compression, stretching and a bend demonstrate that fiber reinforcing exerts significant positive effect on strength and deformativny properties of a tufobeton. Data of experimental research confirm a possibility of using tufobeton in the stalefibrobetonnykh designs.
Keywords: Stalefibrotufobeton, steel fiber, matrix, volume percent of fiber reinforcing, stretching, compression, bend, dynamic influences, zone placement
The necessity to take into account external influences from natural and climatic factors - rain, snow, saline solutions, alternating temperatures, as well as internal influences from the changing parameters of the microclimate of premises, during the operation of buildings is determined. It is shown that the capillary-porous structure of the materials of the enclosing structures (ES) contributes to the development of a number of negative processes as a result of capillary condensation, which reduce the heat-shielding and operational properties of the materials of the ES. The negative changes in the materials of ES due to capillary condensation under the influence of external and internal factors are generalized. The possibilities for reducing the negative influence of capillary condensation due to regulation of the microclimate parameters of the premises are revealed. Directions of hydrophobization of ES materials for protection against capillary condensation at external influences are established.
Keywords: enclosing structure, energy efficiency, heat protection, capillary-porous structure, capillary condensation, natural and climatic factors, microclimate, heat and moisture regime, crack formation, hydrophobization
article is devoted to a question of calculation of non-stationary temperatures in cracks of residential buildings with application of numerical methods. Special attention is paid to the causes of cracks in the houses which are in the earned additionally territories of the miner's cities. By means of the program and element system of numerical modeling ANSYS the picture of distribution of cracks on a building facade is shown. The analytical method of calculation of non-stationary air temperatures consisting in application of projective methods of Galerkin is developed for cracks. Establishment of a profile of temperature and speed of air was result of a research on the basis of what it is possible to draw a conclusion that in the presence of cracks in external walls of buildings considerable indignations of the temperature field which are localized near a crack take place, and the sizes of area of distortion are defined by the sizes of the crack.
Keywords: nonstationary temperatures, numerical modeling, crack, uneven sediment, convection, thermal inertia, thermal conductivity, temperature profile, Galerkin method, dimensionless temperature
In the article results of the analysis of analytical dependences and results of the computing experiment executed in Lyr-CAD environment are considered. The purpose of the performed work is a quantitative assessment of the reduction in strength of beams of monolithic reinforced concrete overlappings caused by errors made during the performance of reinforcement work. In particular, an increase in the thickness of the protective layer of concrete and the consequent reduction in the working height of the section are considered. The data analyzed for both reference and span cross sections are analyzed. In total, four series of samples were selected, differing in the class of concrete (B15, B20, B25 and B30). Each series consisted of 9 samples having different working height sections in the reference and span sections. The working height of the section varied from 5 to 22%. The finite element model was created in the LIRA-CAD environment. In the course of the analysis, the effect of changing the working height of the section on the area of the reference and passing reinforcement, selected for strength, was investigated.
Keywords: It is established that the degree of influence of the deviations of the position of the reinforcement from the design in the reference sections and in the span is different. The greatest danger is represented by the support sections, that is, the overlapp