The article describes the method of substantiation of the parameters of strengthening the soil base of a house by cementation through directional hydraulic fracturing. Also describes the work in the laboratory, which allowed to choose the necessary compositions of the cement mixture.
Keywords: reinforcement, soil, comentaron, cementation, directional hydraulic fracturing
Evaluation of the effectiveness of ""green"" buildings is usually carried out by a third party using a rating system. The rating system STO NOSTROY 2.35.4–2011 assesses habitat sustainability according to 46 criteria, which are grouped into 10 categories, presented in Table 1. STO NOSTROY 2.35.4–2011. The article presents the methodology developed on the basis of the above-mentioned rating system, as well as the foreign LEED system, and the S-factor for the designed 16-storey residential building is calculated. The calculation for clarity is presented in the form of a diagram. Since the design we strive to get as close as possible to the highest grade of assessment, the most attention is paid to such concepts as energy saving and energy efficiency. Calculation of economic efficiency is possible on the basis of the resource-technological model by calculating the volume of waste during the overhaul and demolition of the designed building. This is a necessary task, since the construction of environmentally-friendly, sustainable buildings requires full consideration of the life cycle of the building, and accounting for the entire life cycle necessitates integrated design. The time spent at an early stage on the complex design of the building, taking into account the concept of sustainable development, is rather quickly compensated with the start of building operation, since it is known that the largest share of costs falls on the operational period of the building. So, as a result of calculating the S-factor, the building is assigned a certain grade of assessment. Raising the grade of an assessment of a building being erected will lead to an increase in its investment attractiveness. That is why it is important to perform a similar calculation at the design stage of the life cycle of the construction object, since in this case we have the opportunity to increase the value of the S-factor to the required.
Keywords: energy efficiency, energy resources, sustainable development, green building, green building standards, stages of the life cycle of buildings
The article describes the methodological rationale and organization of the process of artistic design when creating an automated capture of pipe products. Show examples of constructive solutions of separate elements of capture.
Keywords: automatic capture, trumpet, artistic and design, methodology, rationale, option, shapes hook design
Article is devoted to acquaintance with methods which are used in the work by experts-builders when conducting construction technical expertizes of building constructions, buildings and a construction. The list of the main methods used in researches by the expert is provided and also each method is considered in more detail.
Keywords: Method, examination, expert, technique, fundamental principle, special case, graphic model, construction designs, construction technical expertize
The article describes the main advantages of the use of computer technology and information modeling for the design of energy-efficient buildings. The article deals with the advantages of the use of computer technology and information modeling for the design of energy-efficient buildings. The article also includes a description of the benefits that involves the use of BIM-technologies. The article deals with the problems that can be solved by using information modeling. In addition, the article describes the software products that implement the process of designing energy-efficient buildings. Also, the results achieved by domestic engineers are described. The functionality and usefulness of the method under consideration is unconditional. Many engineers agree that BIM modeling is the most accurate engineering tool to highlight the most energy-efficient processes. The use of BIM-technologies opens up additional opportunities to improve the economy of our country by introducing the method of energy-efficient design.
Keywords: energy efficiency, BM-technologies, energy modeling, design, construction, exploitation, digital programming, software, three-dimensional model of the building, pre-design stage.
The article presents an analysis of the effectiveness of the use in the construction of an automated building management system (ASUZ) as a technical basis for the implementation of the concept of a “smart”, “intelligent” building, and the prospects for using APSS to reduce the energy intensity of buildings are noted. Examples of the interaction of building engineering systems with urban facilities are considered. The authors noted the advantages of using and justified the relevance of the involvement of the automated system in the building management processes, identified reasons hindering the implementation of the Smart House technology in Russia.
Keywords: smart city, intelligent buildings, energy saving, automated building management system, energy efficient buildings, engineering systems, housing, smart home
The article is devoted to elaboration of the method of comparative analysis of steel corrugated web beams and I-section beams. For greater reliability of comparison beams with different width and thickness of the belts were considered. The comparison was carried out for 6 and 9 m spans at different values of load intensity. As a result of the study, graphs showing the dependence of normal stresses and metal content on the load value were obtained. The study allows to conclude that the efficiency of the application of corrugated web beams increases with increasing load, for small values of the distributed load, the forces in the usual profile will be less, but in all cases the corrugated web beams are more effecient in terms of metal content.
Keywords: sin-beam, corrugated web beams, steel design, analysis, efficiency of application
The article presents an analysis of the main methods of processing building structures, that contribute to the preservation of the strength characteristics under aggressive environmental influences, as well as the basic principles for calculating the parameters of cleaning materials with free abrasives.
Keywords: Free abrasive, particle, aggressive environment, dynamic impact, machining parts, probability estimate, contact patch, packing square, trajectory of movement, purification rate
In this review article high-rise construction is considered, factors affecting the choice of a constructive system of a building are given. The shell (box-shaped) structural system is described in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of this structural system are listed.
Keywords: high-rise building, structural system (CS), shell (box-shaped) system, horizontal load, stiffness, stability, bezreskosnaya grille, diagonal grille, column, strapping beam, diagonal connection
In article results of the analysis of method of calculation of flat plates of girderless floors are considered on breakdown according to the Russian and foreign design codes are considered. The analysis of the received results demonstrates that in the considered calculation procedures on breakdown similar settlement models are used and identical power factors are considered. Namely the pressing-through effort and the bending moments operating in two planes. Taking note of the moments in various techniques is carried out in two ways. The first way – tangent tension is entered into settlement model. And each technique offers the form of an epyura of tangent tension. The second way – introduction to a condition of durability of the empirical coefficient considering influence of the bending moments. Approach to purpose of geometrical parameters of a settlement (critical) contour is not identical. Contours of different techniques differ in a form and the sizes. And the difference of the sizes is very considerable. It is established that work of knot of interface of girderless flag with a column is studied yet not fully and additional researches on generalization of calculation procedures are required.
Keywords: reinforced concrete, girderless floor, breakdown, working height of section, transversal armature, pyramid of breakdown
The article is devoted to the comparative analysis of the construction and operation of buildings of traditional shape and round shape in the plan. Given data on material costs in the operation of buildings of different shapes.
Keywords: shaping, round buildings, energy efficiency, square buildings, building shapes, heating, thermal protection
The results of the study of the stability of the core structure of a polygonal ring under the action of a system of self-balanced radial forces are presented. A complete solution of the problem is given in accordance with the fundamental equations of the theory of R. Mises as applied to a statically definable planar structure. It is established that the instability parameter of the core structure of the hexagonal ring is determined solely by the number of nodal points of the hinged rod system.
Keywords: core structure, regular polygon, hyperboloid, annular diaphragm, determinant, characteristic polynomial, cyclic symmetry
To date, the construction of the new techniques of construction of buildings and structures, as well as the most advanced durable and lightweight materials with high performance characteristics. All this allows you to build cost-effective, high-quality and aesthetically attractive houses. Depending on the materials used in the construction of multi-storey buildings was considered the effectiveness of ribbed coffered floors. Calculation of the 18-storey monolithic building was made in the program complex "Lira-CAD-2013". Floor slab typical floor is considered in the following schemes: buildings with a step of columns 6m and 12 m, the ceiling is flat and coffered with a 200mm plate 50mm, different beam cross-sections (200х400мм and 200х450мм), step 900х900 mm. analysis of the results showed that the most advantageous use of coffered ceilings in the building with a column grid of 12 m, with the use of high-strength concrete and reinforcement steel class A500.
Keywords: caisson ceiling, slab, beam, reinforcement, concrete, analysis, consumption, reinforcement, step columns, the cost of construction, structural scheme
This article contains a survey of the building in the city of Rostov-on-don. A detailed visual inspection of the object of study, assessment of the technical condition of the main bearing building structures, analysis of the causes of defects and damage, pre - installation of the category of technical condition. As a result of the survey developed recommendations for the design, measures to restore or strengthen the building structures.
Keywords: technical condition, categories of technical condition, inspection, visual inspection, detailed examination, building structures, defect, damage, repair, restoration, operation
In article the method of network seismic fields which allows to determine the geoseismic parameters of soil thickness giving seismic characteristic of soil is considered. The average values of speeds of longitudinal and cross waves characterizing the generalized geoseismic section are defined. On the basis of high-speed and density characteristics of soil calculations of increments of seismic intensity concerning parameters of reference soil are executed
Keywords: seismic characteristic of soil, speed of longitudinal waves, speed of cross waves geoseismic section, spatial borders of a geological object
In this article such spheres activity as independent fire examination and assessment of property are considered, distinctive features of each activity are considered. Basic elements of each of this field of activity by what documents is guided in work what activity are given
Keywords: the fire, property assessment, fire examination, the appraiser, the expert-builder, accident, the caused damage, judicial proceedings, the conclusion, recovery repair
The procedure of conducting judicial construction technical expertize of the real estate objects damaged as a result of flooding is considered, the main events held construction experts on the place of flooding and the necessary list of documents necessary to start a research are listed.
Keywords: flooding, judicial construction technical expertize, accident, the caused damage, judicial proceedings, the conclusion, recovery repair
The paper considers the feasibility of creating unique laboratories on the territory of radon anomalies. Today there is a need to create unique regional radon laboratories, where the existing buildings themselves will be an emanation environment (camera), inside which it is possible to conduct a wide range of studies. The construction and rapid reconstruction of such laboratories with the use of innovative materials can be more effective in comparison with traditional construction practices. As a building material is proposed to use a wooden building block for the construction of low-rise buildings. Buildings and structures of this unit are quickly erected without the use of specialized equipment. It is also easy to dismantle the building and transfer it to another location, which is necessary for radon studies. The article identifies two principal provisions. The first is the possibility and the need to create laboratory "reference" polygons on radon anomalies to study various technical, design or methodological solutions that can radically change the radon situation inside the model of a real building. It does not exclude the combination of functions of several laboratories in one. Second-the construction and reconstruction of such a "reference" structure can be more effective in terms of both labor costs and terms of work, in comparison with traditional construction practice.
Keywords: radioactivity, radon, anomaly, laboratory, landfill, construction, reconstruction, innovation, building block, precast housing, waste management
The article considers modern methods of seismic and seismic isolation. Traditional methods have long been used in construction practice, but special methods allow to significantly reduce costs and increase the reliability of erected structures. In modern design solutions, it is impossible to increase seismic resistance, only by increasing the cross sections, strength, and weight. New effective methods of seismic protection are required. Such solutions imply a change in mass and rigidity, damping the system depending on its movements and velocities. Thus, the use of seismic protection with proper design can significantly increase such characteristics as: building reliability, safety and reliability of equipment, economic indicators of the building.
Keywords: seismic isolation, seismic, seismic protection, damping, cost-effectiveness
Outlines the main provisions of the calculation of the stability of statically indefinable systems of regular structure. A planar structure with an external contour in the shape of a regular hexagon and under the action of nodal radial compression forces is considered. An analysis of the stability of the equilibrium state of the core structure is performed and the full range of numerical values of the instability parameter of the system is determined.
Keywords: core structure, regular hexagon, hinge system, characteristic polynomial, triangular panel
The results of tests of a series of single-shear samples of joints of wooden elements on inclined metal rods (IMR), in which plain washers transmit the force between the rod and wood, are considered. The intended bearing capacity of the NMS-connection is determined by taking into account changes in SP 64.13330.2017. Theoretically and based on experimental data, the stress-strain state of an IMR connection and the stress state of inclined steel rods are considered. The prevailing factors in the stress state of inclined rods are established. The estimation of the bearing capacity of IMR-connections on the rods with plain washers performed.
Keywords: Wooden structures, ductile connectionions, NMS-connection, inclined metal rods, intended bearing capacity, shearing load, tensile stress, ultimate breaking load, bearing strain under washers, safety factor
Creating a comfortable acoustic climate and an enabling environment for listening to music and speech is crucial in the acoustic design of home theatres. The main requirements for the acoustics of home theater halls are low background noise, diffuse sound field, no echo and optimal reverberation time. The reverberation time is calculated in a certain order. The acoustic mode of the home theater room is assessed in the process of acoustic design.Then the acoustic cladding and electroacoustic equipment are selected. The acoustic system and loudspeakers of a certain orientation are selected depending on the size of the room and the frequency of sound reproduction.
Keywords: acoustics, sound, sound field, home theater, reverberation time, sound absorption coefficient, sound absorption area, acoustic systems, loudspeakers
This article analyzes the stress-strain state of exploited reinforced concrete crane beams in order to identify the causes of abnormal damages. Also, the degree of influence of the revealed damages on safety and operational fitness was assessed.
Keywords: crane beam, technical condition, operational availability, defect, durability, damage, inspection, discretization, stress-strain state
The article provides a rationale for the design and technological parameters of barns, which are fundamental in their construction. Design features of the building and the principles of the organization of the maintenance of cows in them are given and described. The design and technological parameters of barns, providing optimal conditions for keeping cows with their loose housing, are noted.
Keywords: loose cowshed; cowshed; parameters; row; type; aft table; manure; stalls; efficiency
The possibility of using European standards, manuals and manuals for the calculation of elements of nodes of frame structures according to criteria that have not been reflected in Russian standards today is being considered. Numerical methods have been used to analyze the bearing capacity of frame nodes for various combinations of longitudinal forces and bending moments. The formation of residual plastic deformations in the elements of the nodes of the frame structures is considered. The nodes were calculated using the ANSYS software package, and a comparative analysis of the calculation results according to European and Russian standards was performed based on the results of the calculation. The question is raised about the need for further numerical studies of the work of steel frame assemblies, including the conduct of field tests, as well as the development of new methods for calculating frame assemblies with regard to plastic deformations. As a result of the calculations and calculations, the need to take into account the fatigue survivability of steel frame assemblies is established, which is associated with the probability of the occurrence of full design loads for the design life
Keywords: European standards, calculation of steel elements, nodes of frame structures, bearing capacity, plastic deformations, fatigue survivability, low-cycle design loads, full design load, redistribution of internal forces, flexibility of rigid nodes