A comparative analysis was made of the evolution of the development of facade glazing systems in the design of public buildings both abroad and in Russia. It has been established that both abroad and in Russia are characterized by the appearance of buildings with continuous glazing, the production of glass and double-glazed windows of a new generation: with magnetron application of heat-reflecting coatings and with energy-saving characteristics. The shape, size, placement of the glazed surfaces of the facade were determined by the climatic conditions, economic and scientific-technical development of the countries.
Keywords: Facade glazing, translucent facades, Bauhaus, Le Corbusier, stained glass, cold-formed glass, cold facade, exhaust facade, external natural factors
This article discusses a comparative analysis of the results of calculations of a building erected on an unevenly deformable base. The authors, taking into account the peculiarities of the engineering-geological conditions of the territory of the city of Volgograd, made a verification assessment of the influence of the heterogeneity of the bedding coefficient of the soil foundation on the VAT of the structural elements of the building when calculating the final draft.
Keywords: bulk soils, foundations, bases, bed ratio, backfilling, compliance, stiffness diaphragm, stress-strain state
The article deals with the transition from corrugated plates and shells to smooth structures of equivalent rigidity. An expression for the potential deformation energy of an infinitely small element of an equivalent smooth shell and formulas that establish a connection between internal forces and generalized deformations of a corrugated structure are given. A review of the formulas for the equivalent stiffness of the corrugated shell during bending, presented in the works of various authors, is carried out. In order to select the dependencies that provide the smallest error when replacing the corrugated shell with a smooth one, a numerical experiment is performed in the LIRA finite element complex. A corrugated plate hinged around the contour under the action of a uniformly distributed projective load is considered. The calculation of the structurally orthotropic construction is performed numerically by the finite difference method. It is also established that the monograph of S.G. Lekhnitsky contains an incorrect formula for the moment of inertia of a sinusoidal corrugation.
Keywords: corrugated structures, plates and shells, finite element method, finite difference method, orthotropy, equivalent stiffness
The article deals with modern design and architectural planning decisions made in the design and construction of high-rise buildings. The scale and the scientific and technical level of the project represents a unique and first used in the practice of high-rise construction. The article analyzes the basic design decisions, a comparison with international practice and the best design solutions of skyscrapers in the world.
Keywords: high-rise unique building, stability, load-bearing systems, modeling, progressive collapse, structural system, outrigger, skyscraper, column, core of rigidity, strength, reliability, horizontal load
This article discusses the relevance of the use of transformable systems in the architecture and construction of unique high-rise buildings. Conceptual projects of a dynamic architecture are described that have become the basis for the implementation of innovative solutions that take into account the requirements of sustainable development. On the basis of a retrospective analysis of the experience of designing public buildings, using transformation in architecture, as well as conceptual designs of high-rise buildings, the main areas of application of transformable systems in modern high-rise construction are identified.
Keywords: architecture, high-rise buildings, public buildings, transformation in architecture, dynamic architecture, innovative technologies, sustainable architecture, sustainable development, construction, "green" technologies
Progressive collapse - or, in particular, an understanding of the mechanics of this phenomenon and the development of ways to consider it in the framework of structural design - can be regarded as a relatively new topic in building science. The article describes the background to the emergence of this topic, ranging from local examples of the collapse of buildings and ending with the well-known collapse of the World Trade Center. Analyzed the latest world research in this area and revealed inconsistencies in the requirements of regulatory documentation and the real work of the building frame in case of progressive collapse
Keywords: progressive collapse, durability, steel frame, multi-storey buildings, connections stiffness, ductility
The article presents data on the effect of external composite reinforcement of reinforced concrete columns on their deformation properties. It is established that the results of calculations of the reinforced samples according to the deformation norms in force have significant discrepancies with experiment. Based on the analysis of the results of experiments, proposals have been introduced into the normative calculation of deflections, which take into account the type and percentage of composite reinforcement and ensure good agreement between the experimental and theoretical data.
Keywords: concrete, reinforced concrete, composite material, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, external reinforcement, deformations, deflections, compressed elements
The paper presents the characteristics of the leading types of media facade constructions on the market, on the basis of the analysis of which the prospects for the introduction of technology into the urban space were evaluated. The article also describes the main types structural and architectural solutions that determine the rationality of the use of a particular type of media facade.
Keywords: media facade, cluster media facade, framed media facade, frameless media facade, modular media facade, LED, architectural lighting, LED screen, media facade design, interactive facade
As is known, the oil refining industry with each year significantly adds to the growth and pace of construction of various enterprises. In the processing of crude oil, you must use a variety of equipment and materials. One of such materials is tube furnaces, which are used for the production from petroleum feedstock - motor gasoline and other products (kerosene, gas oil, diesel oil), including raw materials for the chemical industry (ethylene, propane, butane).For a long time, Customers applied directly to the factory to obtain steel structures. With the introduction of the "Safety Rules PB 03-605-03" the situation has changed. The author presents an individual design of CM (metal structures) to a tank filled with a liquid or gaseous substance.
Keywords: oil refining furnaces, metal frame, tube furnaces, oil feedstock, chemical industry, design
The article describes the main problems of implementation of energy-efficient technologies in the construction sector. The key parameters affecting the energy efficiency of the building, ways to minimize energy losses.
Keywords: Increase of energy efficiency of buildings, minimization of energy losses, energy efficiency class of the building, economical consumption of energy resources
The article discusses the method for calculating beams with corrugated walls as three-layer structures of equivalent rigidity. The derivation of resolving equations for a one-dimensional finite element of a three-layer beam is given. A hypothesis is introduced that the shelves fully perceive normal stresses, and the wall only works on shear. When obtaining the basic equations, forced deformations are taken into account, which may include creep deformations, temperature deformations, shrinkage deformations, etc. The solution of the test problem for a beam hinged at the ends under the action of a load uniformly distributed over the length is presented. To control the reliability of the results, a finite element analysis was performed in a three-dimensional formulation in the LIRA software package. Shelves of the beam are modeled by flat triangular shell finite elements, and the wall is modeled by rectangular shell FE.
Keywords: corrugated wall beam, three-layer beam, finite element method, equivalent rigidity, stress-strain state
Light steel thin-walled structures are considered as elements of modern building erection technology. Domestic and foreign regulatory documents governing the use and design of structures made of thin-walled steel profiles are presented, and obvious advantages and operational disadvantages are indicated.
Keywords: construction, metal structures, light steel thin-walled structures, thin-walled beams, energy efficiency
The method of parametric modeling and design based on the example of a building is studied, the architectural image of which is a set of circular helical and cylindrical surfaces defined by coordinates through functions of the corresponding surfaces in the SAPPHIRE software. Alternative methods for specifying surfaces in the SAPPHIRE PC, AutoCAD with subsequent export to the LIRA PC for engineering calculations of the frame of the building for various combinations of loads by the finite element method are presented. The object of the study is a 360-meter-high building with a hardness core in the form of a cylindrical shell of revolution. The height of the floor is 3 m. Around the rigid shell there are three circular helical surfaces that "rise" in a spiral upward along with the core of rigidity to a mark of 360 meters from the level of the ground floor. One of the most universal ways to create a surface is to specify it through a formula, because you can easily change the shape and appearance of the surface without manually editing the geometry of the model in the drawing. The development of the parametric architecture calls for the creation of new approaches to the calculation of unique buildings and structures, the improvement of software complexes that implement the finite element method, and the appearance of new varieties of finite elements with curvilinear boundaries.
Keywords: parametric architecture, surface, shape of the object, shell, curve, model, geometry, program, formula surface, helical surface
The article provides an overview of the main methods for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. The main causes of heat loss in the building are revealed. The ways of solving the problems of energy consumption of new objects are shown: installation of alternative energy sources, improvement of thermal insulation of enclosing structures, installation of high-efficiency ventilation with heat recovery, use of energy-saving windows. The legislative base and state programs stimulating energy-efficient construction in our country are considered. A study was made of modern methods of building buildings, allowing to reduce energy and resource costs
Keywords: energy efficient buildings, energy resources, heat insulation, heat loss, geothermal heating, solar collector, energy saving windows
The article deals with the effectiveness of high-strength concrete for the design of concrete columns on the example of 20-storey residential building in Rostov-on-Don. The results of the ground floor columns calculations for different types of concrete strength are presented. The columns are presented in two variations. The first variation is 600x600 B25 from the second underground floor to the tenth floor and 500x500 B25 from the eleventh to twenty-fifth floor. The second one is 500x500 B60 from the second underground floor to the seventh floor, 400x400 B60 from the eighth to the eleventh and 400x400 B25 from the twelfth to the twentieth floor. The analysis of the study results showed the technical and economic efficiency of the use of high-strength concrete (in particular, concrete class B60) due to increasing the strength characteristics of the compressed elements. This is also due to reducing the cross-sectional size and weight of the columns, saving reinforcement, causing a reduction in the cost of elements as a whole.
Keywords: high-strength concrete, compressed elements, construction of tall buildings, columns, Lira-SAPR, calculation of structures
The article deals with the problems of using structural systems with outriggers for high-rise buildings. The analysis of various designs is carried out, the features of their work are specified, the advantages and disadvantages are identified, the areas of their application.
Keywords: high-rise building, structural system, outrigger, skyscraper, column, core of rigidity, strength, reliability, horizontal load, aerodynamics
The article considers the use of renewable energy sources in construction in general and in high-rise unique buildings. Such an approach will allow to design and build buildings in which integrated renewable energy sources can be harmoniously entered into all aspects of construction. This is especially true for high-rise buildings. With the implementation of energy-efficient technologies, the main drawback - high energy consumption - will be cut off. The article analyzes non-traditional sources of energy, such as wind, solar, land, water and biomass. The relevance of their application in construction and influence on all aspects of the project is proved: town-planning, functional, space-planning, architectural and artistic, constructive and engineering.
Keywords: renewable energy source, high-rise building, bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, aerodynamics, energy-efficient technology, architectural and artistic appearance, planning solution, optimal shape of the building.aerodynamics
The paper deals with statically determinate and statically indeterminate reinforced beams of a rectangular cross-section of bimodule material loaded with a uniformly distributed load. Since for heterogeneous materials, the elastic modulus for tension and compression are different, the work aimed to study the influence of different boundary conditions in statically indeterminate beams on SSS. It is shown that the magnitude of the maximum normal stresses is less than the stresses found without taking into account the bimodule nature of the beam material, both in statically determinate and in statically indeterminate beams. The maximum normal stress and maximum deflection decrease with the transition to a statically indeterminate beam from a similarly statically determined beam by replacing the supports. The method used in work makes it possible to clarify the calculation of strength and rigidity, taking into account the bimodule nature of the material of the reinforced beams, and also to select the optimal fastening of the beams that ensure the bearing capacity of the structure with material saving.
Keywords: reinforced beam, heterogeneity, bimodule material, stress-strain state, normal stresses, deflection, statically indeterminate scheme, bearing capacity, strength, deformability
the article presents the ways of implementation of the strategy focused on the optimization of the process of heat transfer of solar installations, with the applied in their device combined heat exchange panel of aluminum profile elements tightly crimping copper tubes with coolant. Based on the comparative analysis of the two configurations of this device, the methods of heat transfer intensification from the absorbing surface to the working medium in flat-type solar collectors are proposed
Keywords: energy saving, efficiency, optimization, heat transfer, heat capacity, heat exchange panel, heat exchange, solar installation, solar collector, alternative energy sources
An actual problem of the lack of green spaces in modern cities is considered. Some ways of applying gardening in the structure of the building are suggested, which can solve the indicated problem. The most detailed consideration is the reception of horizontal external landscaping, examples of domestic and foreign experience are given.
Keywords: Green architecture, green spaces, vertical landscaping, atrium landscaping, horizontal outdoor landscaping, house-garden decoration of building facades, roofs in operation
The article presents calculation of the cost of overlappings from LSTK and wooden ones. The floors of the two-storey house with a span and overlap with a span of 12 m were calculated. Calculation of the cost of materials is presented for each option. In conclusion, conclusions were drawn on the rational use of material types for each of the calculated spans.
Keywords: light steel thin-walled structures, LSTK ceiling, wooden flooring, reduced characteristics, effective cross-section, construction
The technique of calculating the metal corrugated structures using the finite element method for an axisymmetric load is considered in the article. One-dimensional finite elements in the form of truncated cones are used. Calculations are performed using the program developed by the authors in the Matlab package. An example of calculation of a ground well rigidly clamped in the base under the action of ground pressure is given. The sinusoidal profile of the corrugation is considered. The graphs of changes in bending moments and ring forces are presented. For a smooth shell of the same thickness, the bending moment in the pinch was 30.3% higher compared to the corrugated, and the maximum value of the ring force was 15.7% higher.
Keywords: metal corrugated structures, cylindrical shell, finite element method, axisymmetric problem, soil well, shell theory, edge effect
The description of information exchange methods between CAD and CAE systems is presented. The description of the modular system of design and strength analysis of geodesic shells GeoTran is given. Translation of geometric models from ArchiCAD to Patran/Nastran/Patran has drawbacks. It is proposed to implement the translation of geometric models in a neutral SAT format. Developed a translator geometric models of single-contour geodetic shells from ArchiCAD in SAT format. The translator allows you to automate the exchange of information between the CAD system ArchiCAD and various CAE systems designed for strength analysis.
Keywords: data exchange between CAD and CAE systems, neutral file, SAT and OBJ formats, geodesic shells, translation of geometric models
The paper presents modern techniques of the methodology of system approach to training. The paper presents an analysis of the features of the methodology of research work by students of the College as an element of an integrated system of education in the design and construction of equipment for the construction of pipelines and installation of bored piles. The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the methods of possible practical cooperation of secondary vocational and higher education systems in the system of research and development work.
Keywords: research work of students, efficiency, pipe-laying crane, suspended cargo handling device, analysis, design features
This article describes the operation of panels from wood, sheathing from sheets and under the conditions of shear fixing in the form of ribs, an examination of the energy method that allows to determine the shear deformations of panels made of wood. Could get dependencies that determine the effort. They occur on each nail, nailed to the contour and to the inner edges of the panel. Proceeding from this, we developed a computer program that determines the numerical values of the angles by the method of successive approximations.
Keywords: wood panels, plywood coatings, shear forces and deflections, energy method, computer program