The paper provides an overview of the applications in central heating points (CHP) of technologies and equipment to improve energy efficiency and quality of heat supply from district heating systems. The main equipment and characteristics of the hot water supply system taken as an example of the central heating station "MGU" are given. Described is the method of choosing the heating circuit of the central heating station from the ratio of the maximum loads of hot water supply and heating. For the adopted example of a central heating station, based on the above characteristics, the main indicator of energy efficiency is the specific consumption of electrical energy for the transport of thermal energy. Factors that have the greatest impact on this indicator: coefficient of uneven consumption of "hot water"; quality of regulation of hot water supplied to the hot water supply network; precise control of the productivity of the boosting and circulation pumping stations. The standard total power of the pump drives has been determined to be 13.58 kW and the range of actual power is from 10.79 kW to 22.04 kW.To reduce the influence of factors in the control scheme, it is proposed to use flow (pressure) regulators to maintain a constant direct-acting pressure drop. Use the pressure (pressure difference) of hot water discharged to the DHW system and returned from the system as balancing forces for this regulator. The parameters of hot water of rational modes of operation of the hot water supply system from the central heating station "MGU" were determined: temperature of hot water at the outlet of the heat exchange equipment 75 ° С; hot water pressure at the outlet of the heat exchange equipment 45 m; hot water pressure at the inlet of the circulation pump 25 m. The implementation of the proposed option without the inertial control scheme for the temperature of "hot water" and the developed rational modes of operation of the hot water supply system, according to the assessment of efficiency indicators, will reduce the specific consumption of electrical energy in the central heating station by 28.4% from 0.631 kW * h / m3 to 0.452 kW * h / m3.
Keywords: central heating station, hydraulic mode, flow regulator, pump characteristic
This article presents the results of studies of modes of regulation of heat energy supply to the network. Analysis of the existing (traditional) mode of weather regulation of heat supply to the network revealed a number of shortcomings, incl. low period of operation of boilers in effective modes. The proposed mode of supply of heat energy from the network will ensure a long-term efficient operation of the boiler units. It optimizes the consumption of heat energy for auxiliary needs by significantly reducing the number of starts of boiler units.
Keywords: boiler unit, temperature schedule, specific gas consumption, heat output, weather regulation
This article presents the results of the analysis of factors influencing the burner device of heat generators, as well as methods for their selection. The results of an experimental study of the dependence of the efficiency of heat generators on the operating power of burners are presented. Recommendations have been developed for choosing a heat generator and a burner.
Keywords: heat generator, burner device, Gorenje mode, operating power, heat balance
This article presents the results of an experimental study of the deep cooling of natural gas combustion products in a condensation heat exchanger of a waste heat exchanger in a boiler house No. 12 at the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "National Research Ogarev Mordovia State University". The heat scheme of the boiler house with the flue gas heat exchanger provides the maximum continuous cooling mode. The study identified the factors that have the greatest impact on the efficiency of the heat exchanger-utilizer.With short-term operation of the boiler in the spring and autumn periods, the efficiency is more than 3%.
Keywords: burner, combustion mode optimization, heat utilizer, boiler room thermal circuit, boiler unit, flue gases, condensation, heat exchanger, cogeneration mode, cooled gases
This article presents the results of an experimental study and evaluation of the application of a method for optimizing fuel use by the ratio of the power of a boiler unit in a block-modular boiler house and setting the power of a burner on the combustion steps. As a result of the study, the criteria for the application of this method to the existing block-modular boiler house, the factors having the greatest influence on the efficiency of the boiler units are determined.
Keywords: heat transfer intensification, optimization of fuel use, cogeneration mode, energy production, combustion mode, boiler, condensation, gas flow turbulization, waste heat boiler
The article gives an overview of the ways to utilize the heat of the boiler exhaust gases. In conditions of actualization (both technical and economic expediency) of application of technologies for fuel economy and environmental protection, the use of aggregates based on the internal combustion engine and microturbines with the utilization of the heat of the cooling system and exhaust gases has found application. Deep cooling of combustion products of natural gas both in boilers (condensing boilers) and in special condensing heat exchangers (utilizers) makes it possible not only to organize the full utilization of the physical heat of the flue gases (the lowest heat of combustion of the fuel), but also to select the latent heat of condensation Water vapor. The coefficient of efficiency of the boiler-aggregate will be increased in this mode by 8-12%, provided that the boiler operates in the optimal mode. Cooling of combustion products also reduces the content of nitrogen oxides in flue gases, incl. With the use of heat pump plants. The efficiency of the implementation of projects for the installation of condensing heat exchangers depends to a large extent on the number of hours of operation at maximum capacity in the mode of deep utilization. In this connection, we propose a variant of optimization of the boiler room thermal scheme with the heat recovery of the flue gases.
Keywords: Heat recovery boiler, boiler house thermal scheme, optimization, boiler, flue gases, heat generating unit