This article describes the control of the weld with illegal changes in the integrity of the design of motor vehicles, eddy current method of non-destructive testing. Description of the method and mathematical model. Experimental data are illustrated in tables and graphs. As well as the rationale for the effectiveness of this method.
Keywords: non-destructive inspection method, a weld, a motor vehicle, the frequency, the defect, the integrity of the design
The article presents a description of the device for determining the physicomechanical characteristics of bulk materials - coefficients of external and internal friction. In DSTU, a device for determining the friction characteristics of bulk materials was designed and manufactured. A method for determining the coefficients of static and dynamic friction is presented. The proposed device allows to obtain more accurate information about the frictional characteristics of one or different bulk materials in static and dynamic conditions.
Keywords: Friction, dynamic coefficient of friction, static coefficient of friction, bulk material
The article considers the issue of relevance of non-destructive testing, as well as some features of the use of non-destructive testing devices in the judicial construction and technical expert examination. Conducting construction and technical expert examination is impossible without accurate measurements, which attaches conditions for the use of various methods, technologies, devices and tools. Among them, one should separately distinguish a group of non-destructive testing devices that allow measuring facilities of research without damage and simultaneous obtaining of reliable features of parameters determining the technical condition of the facilities being examined.
Keywords: judicial construction and technical expert examination, expert, non-destructive testing, non-destructive testing methods, non-destructive testing devices
For the first time, the decline in the power consumption of filament light-emitting diode lamps of different firms and power after their inclusion in the electric grid to the full stabilization of its values was investigated. These data are necessary for further clarification of the mechanism for the decrease in the light flux of LED lamps and the reduction in their energy efficiency that occur during the initial period of their operation.
Keywords: filament LED lamp, power consumption decline, luminous flux, energy efficiency, the mechanism of recession
When developing any technology of repair it is necessary to conduct research mikrolitrazhnyh worn parts of assemblies using metrological equipment. At the moment to improve the accuracy of research the repair company should use the latest measuring system, allowing to carry out a full complex of works on profileration surfaces of worn parts. Such devices include for example profilograph profilometer English company "Taylor Hobson", which allowed to determine the amount of allowance for machining the body of the power steering distributor. As a result, using the data obtained, the technology of repairing the power steering of KAMAZ vehicles was developed.
Keywords: metrological equipment, profilograph-profilometer, micrometer, power steering, repair technology, recovery, wear, distributor, shaft
The article provides an overview and analysis of the best available techniques (BAT) for reducing dust to the atmosphere from enterprises of various industries (mining, fuel industry, ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, building, livestock production). Dust has the property to settle and adsorb, affects the state of the environment and human health. These factors determine the importance of introducing dust reduction technologies. Methods generated applicable and branch, as well as the main factors limiting the applicability of technologies. Recommendations proposed to improve the implementation of the best available techniques.
Keywords: atmospheric air, dust, best available technique, industry, dust removal equipment
Monitoring the condition of indoor objects is an important task of building management systems. To solve the problems of monitoring optimal use of wireless sensors. The purpose of the article is to consider wireless passive sensors that do not require a separate power source. A generalized block diagram of a system for monitoring the condition of objects inside the premises is presented. Two types of sensor data are given: on the basis of radio private identification and on the basis of surface acoustic waves. Their principle of action is revealed and the areas of application in smart home control systems are shown. It is revealed that modern technologies allow solving the problem of providing power to wireless sensors using an external electromagnetic signal.
Keywords: wireless passive sensor, RFID tag, temperature measurement, sensor based on surface acoustic waves
According to the methodology of the Research Center for Applied Electrodynamics KNRTU them. A.N. Tupolev (Kazan) has developed an economically viable local (point) microwave technology that allows regulating the physiological activity of growing baker's yeast within a few dozen percent of the nominal production level. The optimal processing parameters for EHF EHF baking yeast are experimentally determined. The features of the use of components of electromagnetic technology in the production of baking yeast are considered. A flow chart is presented that can be used in the process of microwave processing. A feasibility study of the proposed version of the introduction of microwave technology in the production of baking yeast, which showed the perspectivity of its application, was carried out. The proposed technology contributes at the same time to improving the environmental and technological efficiency of the biotechnological stages of food production.
Keywords: extremely high frequencies, EHF, microwave technologies, baking yeast, physiological activity, culture medium
According to the methodology of the Research Center for Applied Electrodynamics KNRTU them. A.N. Tupolev (Kazan) has developed an environmentally friendly and economically viable conveyor microwave technology for the decontamination of dry brewer's grains, which allows the storage capacity to be raised to the required production time. This provides the possibility of its further use for the needs of animal husbandry and contributes to the improvement of environmental and technological efficiency of both brewing and livestock production.
Keywords: extremely high frequencies, EHF, microwave technologies, beer pellet, decontamination
Currently, one of the main problems of our time is to improve the ecology of the regions. Green areas can contribute to this, however, the southern region of Russia is caused by a dry summer period. In this regard, there is the task of ensuring high-quality irrigation, which is often carried out by automated systems. However, without feedback, it is extremely difficult to bring the process to the proper level of quality. To do this, use humidity sensors, the price of which inevitably leads to a strong appreciation of the system. This article discusses the possibility and feasibility of developing and implementing its own moisture sensor that would meet such positive criteria as low cost, high accuracy and wide range of measurements, high corrosion resistance, versatility of application.
Keywords: soil moisture sensor, automation, irrigation, capacitive measurement method, microcontroller, Southern Federal District
The paper presents an approach to the complex measurement of temperature, humidity and electric arc for shields of complete switchgears. Using a polyharmonic signal of a given shape allowed two sensors to be simultaneously polled. Temperature and humidity sensors are made in the form of fiber Bragg gratings with special spectral characteristics.
Keywords: Bragg fiber grating, sensor, humidity, temperature, electric arc, complete cabinet, power distribution system, optical fiber, lens, light
The paper deals with the problem of measuring device micro consumption. A measuring module has been developed for solving this problem. The module is included in the measurement setup for which the measurement procedure is given. As a device under investigation, a metering device for hot and cold water is used. A technique has been developed for estimating the maximum operating time of a device with a pulsed current consumption.
Keywords: micro current consumption, measuring circuit, instrument amplifier, zero drift
In article the design of an integrated micromechanical accelerometer of capacitive type is considered. The method with use of operation of self-assembly, constructed on the basis of the operated self-organization of mechanically intense semiconductor layers of GaAs/InAs is considered. This design was designed also a promodelirovana in ANSYS CAD. Results of model operation meet requirements, shown to present microaccelerometers, and give the chance to use them for further perfecting of structures of the given type. It is possible to use the obtained data in particular for calculation of the recommended parameters when developing techniques of projection of accelerometers and gyroscopes and also for development of more precise models of microelectromechanical structures.
Keywords: MEMS, capacitive type, micromechanical accelerometer, design, sensor, sensor, mathematical model, GaAs/InAs
This article discusses the process of developing an ultrasonic method of measuring the state of the electrolyte in the process of burning discharge with an electric electrode. The classical methods of electrical effects on the surface of steels, such as electrochemical, electro-erosion, electro-thermal and electro-mechanical have their drawbacks. Namely, high energy consumption, environmental pollution, the problem of recycling by-products, the difficulty of obtaining the required surface profile to a certain extent. In this regard, there is an acute issue of the development and research of new energy-saving, environmentally friendly and cost-effective methods of impact on the surface. At the moment there are no systematic experimental studies of discharge in multiphase media. Not the conditions for the ignition of the discharge with an electrolytic cathode. Not studied physical processes on the boundary of the plasma and the liquid. There is no mechanism of the effect of discharge in the vapor-gas bubble on the surface of metals. All the above reasons delay the development of technology of plasma-electrolyte formation of the surface microrelief. The aim of the work is to measure and optimize the ultrasonic signal and calculate the frequency spectrum of reflected ultrasonic vibrations from a large number of reflectors (electrolyte bubbles), as well as the development of mathematical modeling of the process of reflection of ultrasound from the electrolyte bubbles.
Keywords: Ultrasound; technique; electrolyte; combustion; measurement
The rotor shaft of the turbocharger is the part that determines the life of the bearing unit. Various methods of restoring the working capacity of the rotor shaft have been developed. The most common of them-treatment for repair size and applying a layer of metal coating in various ways. After that, the rotor shaft is subjected to dynamic balancing, in order to ensure the minimum allowable imbalance. Stands on the basis of microprocessor-based two-plane balancing device PB-02M are widely used in the repair industry at the present time. The article deals with the process of dynamic balancing of restored rotors. The features of this process in relation to the conditions of repair production are noted. This is a large range of repaired units and the instability of the size of the bearing surfaces after the restoration. It is necessary to adjust the balancing device for each rotor. The case in which the initial rotor imbalance is much higher than the permissible one is also considered. It is necessary to carry out balancing in several stages. Pre-balancing - this is the first stage. Then the final balancing is made to the permissible imbalance value. The article presents a general algorithm for balancing rotors on balancing stands equipped with a measuring system based on the device PB-02M. The presented approach in the application of the measurement system allows to balance the parts with the required accuracy. This will ensure a high post-repair life of the repaired unit and the whole unit.
Keywords: turbocharger, rotor, repair, restoration, machine, balancing, adjustment, unbalance, device, algorithm
The problem of control of strength characteristics of agricultural machine parts by dynamic non-destructive methods of impact indentation of conical shape is considered. The quality of the most important parts is considered in terms of the set of mechanical characteristics that determine the strength, hardness, wear resistance and deformability. These characteristics should be known and be able to quickly and accurately control all parts both during production and during operation. The mechanical properties of metals are stochastic. For this purpose, a device for impact indentation was developed and a method based on the probabilistic laws of dispersion of mechanical characteristics was developed.
Keywords: agricultural machines, reliability, quality control, mechanical characteristics, Weibull law, non-destructive testing, impact indentation
Radio-photon sensor systems represent a wide range of measurement information systems that use today's standardized parallel and sequential type optical analog chains with filtering, which allows to functionally display information received in the optical range in the radio frequency. One of the main, most widely used elements in the RPSS, which solves the problems of forming, filtering and measuring the conversion of optical radiation, including for the stage of further generation of radio-frequency carriers, is the fiber Bragg grating. The cumulative analysis made it possible to propose for the design of RFSSS a new class of sensors - address fiber Bragg structures (AFBS) constructed on the basis of FBG with two symmetrical discrete phase shifts or two identical FBGs potentially having improved metrological and technical and economic characteristics, as well as enhanced functionality compared with existing, widely used resonance sensors, based on the effects of Bragg and Fabry-Perot in fiber optics. AFBS, by its designation, should become a multifunctional element of the RPSS that act as sensors, formers of two-frequency optical radiation, the basis for generating in each of them a unique difference radio frequency carrying measurement information, which is also the address for their multiplexing. This made it possible to propose a new, separate class of the RPSS, which was named "Radiophotonic sensor systems on adressed fiber Bragg structures", the hierarchical classifier for the creation of which was the main subject of this article.
Keywords: radio-photon sensor system, addressed fiber Bragg structure, integrated fiber-optic sensor, interrogation, multiplexing, hierarchical classifier of construction problems, system approach
The article deals with the theoretical substantiation and computer modeling of an optical vector spectrum analyzer based on asymmetric optical two-band modulation using a parallel two-channel Maha-Zehnder modulator. The proposed method and device make it possible to achieve twice the measurement range in comparison with the classical optical vector analyzer based on single-band modulation and to realize a simpler and more reliable configuration in comparison with the previously presented amplitude asymmetric optical vector analyzer with two sidebands. It can be possible to measure the frequency characteristics of a fiber Bragg grating with a width of up to 0.5 nm (60 GHz) with a resolution of up to 1 MHz (about 5-10 fm) using electrooptical modulators with a bandwidth of up to 30 GHz.
Keywords: optical spectrum analyzer, two-frequency modulation, frequency asymmetry, measurement range, fiber Bragg grating
This article describes the approbation of the humidity sensor in the real operating conditions of the road. The authors have developed a protective design of humidity sensors that meets the requirements for their laying in the ground floor, developed a mobile portable data reader. The technology of calibration, calibration and laying of sensors in the soil of the roadbed is presented. The analysis of the data obtained after calibration of the sensors.
Keywords: the soil subgrade, moisture monitoring in the conditions of the road, the humidity sensors
The article is devoted to the increasing role of new operational methods of Express diagnosis of diesel engines equipped with modern fuel equipment with electronic control, which allow non-destructive testing of technical condition. The method of rapid diagnosis of diesel engines of automotive equipment equipped with an electronic fuel system. Thus, the developed method of rapid diagnosis using a multi-cycle auto scan and diagnostic kit "Tester CR" allows to determine the technical condition of all elements of the power system "Common Rail" for any diesel engine, where such a system is provided, without dismantling the fuel pump and EGF.
Keywords: Express diagnosis, technical diagnostics, fault, diesel, electronic control unit, fuel equipment, fuel pump, electro-hydraulic nozzle
The main disadvantages of the methods of diagnosing the cylinder-piston group used at present are indicated in the article. Mathematical dependencies and the technique of technical diagnosing of a cylinder-piston group of diesel engines with a cold starting cranking of a cranked shaft developed on their basis are offered.
Keywords: engine, cylinder-piston group, compression,diagnosis, cold idle cranking of the crankshaft
The article demonstrates a computer model of a fiber-optic sensor implemented on the basis of a two-frequency optoelectronic generator (OEG) for measuring lateral pressure. In the loop of the optoelectronic generator, a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with a phase shift is applied to which a transverse pressure is applied to guide the birefringence and create two orthogonally polarized transparency windows, which leads to the generation of two optical frequencies. The difference frequency of the beats between the two optical frequencies lies in the microwave range and depends on the magnitude of the pressure applied to the FBG. It was modeled that the sensitivity and the minimum detectable pressure are ~ 10 GHz / (N / mm) and 2.5 × 104 (N / mm), respectively. The high frequency and stability of the generated microwave component of the optoelectronic generator provide an extremely reliable and highly accurate measurement. Frequency survey allows the system to operate at high speed. In addition, the measurements are insensitive to changes in the ambient temperature and the wavelength of the optical carrier.
Keywords: transverse pressure, fiber optic sensor, fiber Bragg grating with phase shift, birefringence, optoelectronic generator, two-frequency optical signal with microwave frequency difference frequency
In the present article the current state and the main problems of nondestructive control methods of working shovels of turbomachines are considered, scopes of nondestructive control methods in a flowing part of turbomachines are defined. The main control methods are considered; the reasons limiting possibilities of these methods are defined; the geometry of shovels, stream parameters, the main defects are defined; are considered hot and cold start-up; gasdynamic control methods are analysed; acoustic control methods, the systems of scanning of a cut of a nozzle are defined; the analysis of systems capable to exercise control of operability of a flowing part of turbomachines is carried out; the mathematical models describing acoustic processes in a flowing part of turbomachines and a way of their improvement are designated. The current state of works on creation of the methods and control devices aimed at improvement of metrological characteristics and expansion of functionality of an acoustic method of nondestructive control of working shovels of a flowing part of turbomachines on a nozzle cut is analysed. For control of working shovels of a flowing part of turbomachines it is necessary to use informative and reliable parameters in complex structure of their understanding. Defects in working shovels of a flowing part of turbomachines are found in operation at surveys by various devices therefore development of the minimum defect to greatest possible can happen for a short time interval that will lead to an emergency. The existing means of regular control прогар shovels don't come to light because of the depth or a sektornost for the reason that defects of motionless parts is insignificant a little influence vibration characteristics of the engine in general. Whereas defects in mobile parts can be revealed also sensors of vibration.
Keywords: distributed fiber systems, аero acoustic control, acoustic field, process simulation, recovery
The present article is devoted to development and a research of the distributed fiber systems of aero acoustic control of parameters of an air-gas stream on a cut of a nozzle of turbomachines. The main emphasis is placed on development and to a research of the distributed fiber systems on the basis of control methods the using multiplexed fiber-optical sensors of control of parameters of an air-gas stream on a cut of a nozzle of the turbomachines using advantages of optical methods of information transfer and the device for his realization. The principles of creation of the complex systems of aero acoustic cartography complemented with methods and measuring instruments of gasdynamic parameters of a stream in a flowing part and on a cut of a nozzle of the turbomachines directed to increase in informational content and level of algorithmization of nondestructive control of a condition of working shovels and providing data acquisition in the conditions of parametrical and structural uncertainty of an air-gas stream as on controlled internal sections of a flowing part, and on output section on a turbomachine cut are defined. Problems of placement of points of control and restoration of spatial distribution of the field of measurements in discrete set of points separately are considered. Restoration of the acoustic field of turbomachines is implemented according to measurements at the exit of WATERS, only using statistical approach. Restoration of the field is presented in the form of continuous functions of spatial coordinates by results of measurement in discrete set of points in the presence of aprioristic information on properties of the measured fields. Statistical approaches for determination of coordinates of sensors and an error of restoration on the example of one model problem of control of the field of the radiation created by the continuous exclusive radiator are used. Results of calculations show that existence of correlation between coefficients of decomposition of the field of radiation on functions, leads to reduction, necessary for achievement of the set accuracy of restoration of number of sensors.
Keywords: distributed fiber systems, аero acoustic control, acoustic field, process simulation, recovery
The multi-advantageous fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) have attracted considerable interest from developers of various optical systems, including communication systems with spectral and code multiplexing, as well as fiber-optic and radio-photon sensor systems. The complexity and high cost of multiplexing and interrogation of complex fiber-optic sensors (CFOS) is still the main limitation for the widespread introduction of sensory systems, both distributed and quasi-distributed, and point-type.This article proposes a new multiplexing method that takes advantage of both broadband fiber-optic and dual-frequency or polyharmonic radio-photon sensor systems. The simplest broadband radiator is taken from the first, but a complex and expensive system of spectrometry is not used to determine the central wavelength of the FBG. From the second, a recording system is used at the beat frequency between two components, but an expensive system for generating two- or polyharmonic sounding systems is not used. The multiplexing parameter is determined by the frequency of separation between two identical over-narrow-band FBGs, which differs by a certain amount from each of the CFOS and, in fact, generates its address. At the same time, FBG-based structures remain a sensitive element of the systems. Thus, a new class of sensitive elements is formed - address fiber Bragg structures (AFBS).
Keywords: radio-photon sensor system, address fiber Bragg structure, integrated fiber-optic sensor, interrogation, multiplexing, two identical over-narrow-band fiber Bragg gratings, frequency spacing, address