In this paper a burning cycle and a basic design of the reactor for the implementation of fusion using a deuterium stream and gaseous target of deuterated diborane (B2D6) were proposed. Two modes of the reactor operation were considered. The presented modeling shows a positive estimation for the burning cycle in which different volatile boranes can be used also. This type of reactor, and use the burning cycle, allowsto theenergetically positive balance - 9.26 MeV per the beam deuteron. In addition, in this process the helium isotope (3He) is generated, which is a valuable product and may be used in other types of fusion reactors. For absorption of excess neutrons a solution of boric acid which contains the natural mixture of boron isotopes was considered to use. In this case, the formation of lithium borate would occur.
Keywords: fusion, deuterium stream, gas target, deuterated boranes
Results of researches of increase of efficiency of a desulfurization of domestic thermal power plants are reflected in article. Reduction of emissions of dioxide of sulfur due to use of the oversaturated water solutions at dissolution of not extinguished lime anolyte will allow to reduce emissions in the atmosphere on average to 1042,48 tons/year on one 300 MW power unit.
Keywords: issue, desulfurization, sulfur oxide, power unit, anolyte, catholyte, activation, solubility, electrochemical processing, gas mix
In article ratios for determination of sensitivity of a piezoceramic transducers are received. The effective control method of sensitivity on electric measurements is offered
Keywords: piezoceramic transducers, sensitivity, electric measurements
Developed a method of producing nanoclusters of copper and lead in water -organic solution with a soluble anode with simultaneous dispersion in the friction layer of metal recovered at the cathode. The topographic studies of the nanocluster metal structures are performed with the scanning probe microscope (SPM) Solver P47H. Tribological properties of steel-steel friction pair are studied on the front friction machine AE-5. In the result, the following is established. It is shown that in the process triboelectrochemical process the nanoclusters are formed of copper and lead with a height of about 100 nm. The possibility of realization of the effect of wearless friction when using a lubricating composition containing nanoscale particles of copper and lead to rubbing steel surfaces. On the friction surfaces is formed servovite film, which improves frictional characteristics of the contact and reduces wear of the contacting surfaces.
Keywords: Nanosized clusters of copper, wearless friction, the coefficient of the rate of friction, wear, atomic force microscopy
This article is devoted to the problem of increasing efficiency of internal combustion engines, and decreasing the levels of potentially harmful chemicals and particulates in the engine exhaust. Internal combustion engines are widely used in automotive transport. Currently there are more than a billion of internal combustion engines in use. They consume substantial amounts of fuel and adversely affect the environment. This paper focuses on a novel approach to increasing the efficiency of internal combustion engines through the use of a turbine-based mechanism. This setup enables the engine to avoid friction losses caused by the currently used crank-and-connecting-rod setup. The turbine-based mechanism will be less prone to detonation of the fuel mixture, and will increase the compression ratio. It will also allow to add 3-8% of hydrogen to the fuel mixture, thus increasing the operating temperature and decreasing the concentration of potentially harmful chemicals and particulates in the engine exhaust. Besides increased efficiency, the proposed engine design will enable liquid-based cooling of the turbine blades. Traditional materials can be employed in its construction.
Keywords: automobile transport, internal combustion engine, increasung efficiency, decreasing the levels of potentially harmful chemicals
"One of the bottlenecks of the production of oxide-semiconductor capacitors is enough fast aging of impregnating solutions of manganese nitrate used to form the cathode electrode of manganese dioxide. This effect is caused by the formation and accumulation of impurities of oxides and nitrides of manganese in the solution, which leads to a poor-quality cathode coating of manganese dioxide on the tantalum anode and as a result, poor performance capacitors. Fast aging of impregnating solutions of the Mn(NO3)2 solutions leads not only to an increase in the cost of materials, but also significantly increases of the volume of waste. As a solution to this problem in the proposed article discusses aspects of chemical regeneration of contaminated solutions of manganese nitrate, analyzed the possible ways of its realization in relation to the existing production of oxide-semiconductor capacitors."
Keywords: Manganese nitrate, manganese oxides, cathode coating, impregnating solutions, manganese nitrides, manganese oxohydroxide, chemical regeneration.
In the article the results of researches of plastic properties of porous powder-like materials are presented in the heated state at tests on monaxonic tension. The feature of deformation of porous standards, that consists in their practically even narrowing on all working length with a subsequent break without visible formation of neck, is marked. Dependence of deformations of lengthening and narrowing of standards is set on their initial porosity and brand of metallic powder
Keywords: monaxonic tension, plastic property, porous powder-like material, warming, protective environment, deformation, lengthening and narrowing of standard
We consider the construction of the antenna side scan sonar with a bright directional characteristic. This paper presents the results of calculations of the antenna to form a side-scan sonar in a line and its radiation pattern.
Keywords: Rod oscillation mode, piezoelectric, plate, coupling coefficient, opposition, sound pressure directivity characteristic deformation of the plate, the radiating surface
Currently, laser annealing are widely used to create a polycrystalline silicon film, which is promising for use in thin film solar cell, and transistors, liquid crystal displays and sensors due to recrystallization of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon films. The study of morphology and surface conductivity of single-crystal silicon film on a glass substrate by laser annealing power. Laser annealing is carried Nd: YAG laser with a wavelength of 532 nm, speed of movement of the stage with a specimen of 5 mm/s and a laser power ranging from 34 to 86 watts. The laser beam was focused on the sample in the form of a narrow line width of 10 microns and 60 mm in length. The dependence of the size of the nanocrystals and the conductivity of silicon films on the power of the laser annealing radiation. It is shown that the power of the laser radiation in the range of 60 to 70 W is optimal for the best electrical parameters silicon film for the purpose of its use in high-performance thin-film solar cells.
Keywords: silicon film, laser annealing, surface morphology, electrical conductivity, thin film solar cell
A numerical model of the laser annealing TiO2 film on the TCO / glass substrate with radiation of a wavelength of 1064nm (Nd: YAG laser) to the crystallization and its use in solar cells perovskite. The modeling used a numerical finite difference method for solving a system of one-dimensional unsteady heat conduction differential equations. As a result, laser annealing temperature distribution obtained in the process of modeling the structure of TiO2 / TCO / glass substrate by varying the laser power. It is shown that a high laser power (30-100 watts) is enough for an effective transition organometallic precursor of TiO2 in the crystalline phase of anatase TiO2 (transition temperature of 400-600 °C) for a short period of time (60 sec.) due to the direct absorption of photons laser radiation. It is found that for experimental studies should be used laser power of 30-70 watts, since a higher power (e.g., 100 W) raises the temperature of the substrate above its melting point (for example, for glass 650 ° C).
Keywords: Numerical modeling, laser annealing, TiO2 film, heat equation, solar cell
The author describes the technological schemes of films formation on sapphire surface for gas-sensitive sensors with use of laser radiation with wavelength of 1064 nm. It is defined that laser radiation allows to increase productivity at gas-sensitive elements reception, to modify crystal and defective structure of materials, to increase quality of oxide film, reproducibility of film parameters and their stability.
Keywords: sapphire, film, gas-sensitive sensor, laser radiation sensitive element, technological scheme, semiconductor materials
The article presents abrief overview of the work in producing and studying of environment friendly nanostructured polymeric composites. Preparation technology and main applications of the nanocellulose (NanoCell) is described. Novel environment friendly hydrophobic polymer composites were developed. These compo¬sites consist of a thick layer of cellulose substrate and a thin protective layer of a biodegradable polymer. Various types of the layer composites and their applications in production of packaging materials are described. The proposed biodegradable nanocomposite coating increases strength of the natural packaging materials and serves effective barrier against water and grease. Wastes of the novel polymer materials can be utilized in two ways: by repulping and by biodegrada¬tion. Widespread usage of the proposed polymer compo¬site materials will bring about an improvement in the ecological state of the environment. Method for preparation of the reactive nanocellulose biocarrier and discussion about its biomedical and cosmetic applications are described as well.
Keywords: : nanocellulose, biocarier, biodegradable materials, nanocopmosite polymer coating, packaging materials , ecological safety
The article presents a description of the nature of the behavior of the fluidized bed consisting of heterogeneous particles, in the apparatus used for drying the dispersed liquid products. Given a description of the features of the experimental setup and methods of processing of obtained results. Describes the characteristic of the observed inhomogeneities of the layer. Shown types formed in the layer of gas bubbles, and describes their coalescence in the layer. Describes the basic mechanisms of coalescence bubbles in a fluidized bed of heterogeneous particles.
Keywords: fluidization, layer, inert, drying, bubble, channel, mode, heterogeneity
This paper presents study on the influence of constant and pulsed anodic polarization on the value of the building and properties of materials of grounding. Mass of anodic dissolution rate was calculated
Keywords: corrosion, cathodic protection, constant, pulsed polarization, anodic grounding, oil pipelines, gas pipelines
It is marked in the article, that at making of details of difficult form powder-like material must thermoforming of powder-like purveyances have high plasticity that would allow for certain technological terms and chart tensely - the deformed state to provide their shaping of zero-defects. Presented taking about the method of test of the heated porous powder-like standards from ferrous powder on a bend. The constructions of press-form are described for cold-press of powder-like standards and adaptation for their dynamic bend in the heated state.
Keywords: test, thermoforming, press-form, heating, porous powder-like standard, adaptation for the bend of standards
The powder samples of indoniobat lead relaxor ferroelectric prepared by intense mechanical action method in combination with shear have been studied. The dependences of the microstrains and mean square displacements оf the PbIn0.5Nb0.5O3 samples from the values of applied pressure have been investigated. The Integral intensities and half-width of some diffraction reflections have been determined by using X-ray diffraction method. The correlations between mechanical action and concentration and type of defects in the studied samples have been established.
Keywords: relaxor ferroelectric, point defects, dislocation, region of coherent scattering, crystallite, microstrain, mechanoactivation, indoniobat lead, shear, power affecting, X-ray diffraction
The technological scheme of sapphire and glassy dielectric PbO – B2O3 – ZnO juncture formation is suggested. The centrifugation method was used for sapphire and glassy dielectric PbO – B2O3 – ZnO juncture formation. It allows to form uniform films with thickness of units to tens of microns. Researches of the received films surface morphology were made by method of atomic force microscopy.
Keywords: sapphire, glassy dielectric, technological process.
The principles of intelligent node of electroengine - brush are discussed. Into the brush an optical fiber sensor of wear and temperature on the basis of serial low reflection fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) is embedded. In contrast to existing, developed sensors are complexed and are able to simultaneously measure the temperature of the shift of the central wavelength of laser radiation reflected by the FBG, the amount of wear by means of registration the change in the length of the FBG arrays. Analysis of the signal reflected from the FBG allows you to define the parameters of the engine speed, temperature changes - the state of brush-collector unit. At a resolution of the interrogator in the wavelength about 2 ps the temperature sensor has resolution 0,2 ° C. Measurement error values of wear sensor, determined by the stability of the amplitude parameters of laser radiation, are near tenth part of micrometer.
Keywords: friction, complexed fiber optic sensor, fiber Bragg grating, wear, temperature,electroengine, smart brush, rotation speed
Set forth in article method can be used when creating machines with guaranteed safe operation in case of possible large expenses for repairs. In the method used, the transition from selective statistical distributions (strength, loading and resource) to the parameters of the General population of finite volume. Absolute dependability is ensured if the resource (design) of parts and machines will be slightly larger than the first variational value of some aggregate. Approximate calculations showed that the increase in the price of the car is about 30% at absolute reliability of all machine parts.
Keywords: method, security, absolute reliability, safe operation, the totality of the final volume, the minimum design life, the allowable growth rates
We consider a class of complex systems, such as socio-technical systems on the example of the elemental sulfur producing by Claus process. Its operation takes place in different types of uncertainty and requires the development of specific approaches to the analysis and evaluation of many factors that affect the system operation and aren't giving in to the quantitative and qualitative description. The paper formulates the problem of multifactor risk analysis of emergency situations at hazardous production facilities using the methods of system analysis. The main groups of factors, parameters, and communication of human operator with the technical subsystem are identified. A method is proposed for assessing the level of selected factors influence on the emergency situations risk in system. Introduced the terminological basis for constructing patterns of socio-technical systems state indicators. According to the expert survey an example of the impact assessment diagram of each parameter to the "weight" of one of the indicators was made.
Keywords: socio-technical system, Claus process, multifactor risk analysis of accident, expert survey, system analysis
The paper presents a method for creating model for combinational circuit implementation in FPGA basis, through its original description. This model represents the equivalent circuit of the FPGA logic elements. The scheme can be used for the calculation of various parameters such as speed, area, power consumption etc. The paper proposes to use this model to assess reliability in relation to the single fault in combinational circuit’s parts or the configuration registers. Furthermore, the resulting equivalent circuit can be modified and re-synthesized in the CAD environment to achieve high levels of resistance to a single event upset. Direct estimation of the masking properties of the logic circuit through its original description is impossible because of substantial change in the structure due to the synthesis process. Evaluation of fault tolerance after place and route is not available due to lack of the necessary tools in modern CAD (Altera Quartus II, Xilinx ISE, Synopsys Synplify). To evaluate the reliability of the project one must create custom FPGA netlist analysis tool and tools for modeling combinational circuits.
Keywords: reliability evaluation, re-synthesis, combinational circuits, FPGA, fault injection.
" In the article the method of calculation of basic characteristics of the work of balloon - cable system. Control values of these characteristics is necessary for the proper design and safe operation."
Keywords: balloon fluctuations, load, tension force, the length of the flight, slack rope, wind flow, the angle of elevation, the speed of the carriage, the Reynolds number
The paper defines the maximum values of the parameters defining the projection angle android robot service implementation instantaneous states of the executive arms of the mechanism and the body, which is provided at a given output level accuracy positioning center.
Keywords: instant status manipulator mechanisms, virtual simulation of movements, service angle, humanoid robots