The problems of road construction organization are considered. The issues of efficient and competent allocation of resources in the conditions of construction under continuous road maintenance are being studied. The issue of the construction of enclosing structures is raised to isolate sections and bands of high-speed and multi-lane highways
Keywords: organization of construction; the economy of construction, the history of architecture, the history of the construction industry
The method of parametric modeling and design based on the example of a building is studied, the architectural image of which is a set of circular helical and cylindrical surfaces defined by coordinates through functions of the corresponding surfaces in the SAPPHIRE software. Alternative methods for specifying surfaces in the SAPPHIRE PC, AutoCAD with subsequent export to the LIRA PC for engineering calculations of the frame of the building for various combinations of loads by the finite element method are presented. The object of the study is a 360-meter-high building with a hardness core in the form of a cylindrical shell of revolution. The height of the floor is 3 m. Around the rigid shell there are three circular helical surfaces that "rise" in a spiral upward along with the core of rigidity to a mark of 360 meters from the level of the ground floor. One of the most universal ways to create a surface is to specify it through a formula, because you can easily change the shape and appearance of the surface without manually editing the geometry of the model in the drawing. The development of the parametric architecture calls for the creation of new approaches to the calculation of unique buildings and structures, the improvement of software complexes that implement the finite element method, and the appearance of new varieties of finite elements with curvilinear boundaries.
Keywords: parametric architecture, surface, shape of the object, shell, curve, model, geometry, program, formula surface, helical surface
Every year, the problem of recycling industrial waste in the construction sector is becoming increasingly important. Recycling and recycling of waste is an important way to reduce environmental damage. For more than one decade, developing technological processes and installations for the processing of concrete and reinforced concrete. Annually in Moscow, about 11.5 million tons of construction waste are generated, and in the near future the increase in the volume of concrete scrap in the demolition of buildings, reconstruction, overhaul and accumulation of substandard structures will reach 13-15 million tons per year.
Keywords: Waste recycling, construction, waste treatment, Demolition of housing, industrial waste, enterprises
The advantages of using self-compacting concrete in the technology of precast reinforced constructions that are manufactured on stands with a travelling shuttering were considered. Considering the significant heat losses on the heating of products in this technology, concretes have been studied that harden at low temperatures. It was shown that self-compacting concretes with consumption of 330-450 kg / m3 gaining strength in compression of 20-35 MPa for 16-20 hours at low temperature heating.
Keywords: self-compacting concrete, stand technology, travelling shuttering, disperse filler, superplasticizer, heat treatment, strength
The question of cost management of the construction organization within the economic mechanism of functioning of the enterprises of a construction complex is considered, the accepted approaches to terminology and this question, and also bases of conceptual device are given. The paper presents various classifications of costs, the questions of conceptual nature within the terminology of "cost Management" as the impact of the subject of management on the object of management and within the framework of the formation of the management structure. The main tasks, principles, approaches and elements of cost management in the construction organization are defined.
Keywords: cost management, cost management, costs, construction, construction organization, construction products
The article provides an overview of the main methods for increasing the energy efficiency of buildings. The main causes of heat loss in the building are revealed. The ways of solving the problems of energy consumption of new objects are shown: installation of alternative energy sources, improvement of thermal insulation of enclosing structures, installation of high-efficiency ventilation with heat recovery, use of energy-saving windows. The legislative base and state programs stimulating energy-efficient construction in our country are considered. A study was made of modern methods of building buildings, allowing to reduce energy and resource costs
Keywords: energy efficient buildings, energy resources, heat insulation, heat loss, geothermal heating, solar collector, energy saving windows
The article deals with the effectiveness of high-strength concrete for the design of concrete columns on the example of 20-storey residential building in Rostov-on-Don. The results of the ground floor columns calculations for different types of concrete strength are presented. The columns are presented in two variations. The first variation is 600x600 B25 from the second underground floor to the tenth floor and 500x500 B25 from the eleventh to twenty-fifth floor. The second one is 500x500 B60 from the second underground floor to the seventh floor, 400x400 B60 from the eighth to the eleventh and 400x400 B25 from the twelfth to the twentieth floor. The analysis of the study results showed the technical and economic efficiency of the use of high-strength concrete (in particular, concrete class B60) due to increasing the strength characteristics of the compressed elements. This is also due to reducing the cross-sectional size and weight of the columns, saving reinforcement, causing a reduction in the cost of elements as a whole.
Keywords: high-strength concrete, compressed elements, construction of tall buildings, columns, Lira-SAPR, calculation of structures
The article analyzes the theoretical approaches associated with the assessment and selection of the best efficiency of the complexes of methods and means to reduce air pollution in the operation of power plants as objects of urban economy. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are considered. The physical-energy approach is highlighted as the most acceptable, in which the ecological efficiency and energy efficiency are the main criteria for the evaluation and selection of measures to reduce air pollution.
Keywords: energy facilities, environmental efficiency, energy efficiency, the physical-energy approach, reduction of air pollution
The low-Thickness aeration zone in the loess soils of Rostov-on-Don is favorable for underflooding. Active civil engineering in the groundwater discharge zone generates a delayed geological risk of seepage and underflooding. To increase the reliability of hydrogeological forecasts, the materials of engineering and geological surveys have been analyzed and summarized, and a conceptual hydrogeological model of the near-river part of the Temernik River has been developed. The model describes the geological structure, boundary conditions of geofiltration, ranges of changes in soil filtration properties. To refine the hydrogeological parameters and reduce the uncertainty of the model, multivariate numerical modeling is planned.
Keywords: underflooding, geological risk, subsidence ground, modeling, conceptual model, hydrogeological conditions
The oil and gas industry is life-supporting for almost all branches of the national economy and forms the basis of the country's economy, while forming the volume of construction production, depending on the amount of oil and gas produced and consumed. Construction in the oil and gas industry has a specific nature, and the arrangement of oil and gas fields differs from industrial construction by a number of features.The main features can be considered: significant volumes of construction and its duration, the scattered nature of oil and gas field facilities on a large territory of the country's regions, linking oil production facilities to oil and gas fields and settlements, and high energy costs for oil and gas fields. Generalized in this study, the organization of construction of oil and gas facilities are aimed at identifying opportunities to use rational and efficient methods of conducting work, increasing the pace of organization of construction of oil and gas facilities in extreme conditions and improving their technical and economic indicators.
Keywords: organization of construction, oil and gas facilities, climatic conditions of construction, technological processes of construction
The results of studies of herbal preparations on their suitability for de-worming sewage of pig-breeding complexes.
Keywords: disinfection, pig complexes, sewage, herbal preparations
The solution of environmental problems of the modern city requires a systematic approach and should include measures for cleaning and protection of all environmental components of the city. As a part of the complex improvement, one of the most simple, inexpensive to implement and at the same time effective methods is to increase green areas of the city. The article deals with the spatial analysis technique of urban green spaces distribution density using modern geoinformation systems on the example of the city of Rostov-on-don. Spatial analysis is carried out in the software package ESRI ArcGIS 10.1. The result of the technique realization is the construction of an electronic map of the city's greenery distribution density, as well as the assessment of the environment quality by comparison with the electronic map of the habitat quality index for the estimated areas.
Keywords: geoinformation systems, GIS, spatial analysis, geostatistical analysis, landscaping, ecology, habitat quality index, electronic mapping, improvement of built-up areas, ecological living comfort
It has been shown that waterproofing mastics (WM) should have increased indicators of water, wear and heat resistance, adhesion to surfaces, environmental friendliness, durability, etc. The relevance of reducing the prime cost of WM with the simultaneous improvement of their properties, due to the introduction of mineral fillers of natural and technogenic origin, as well as wastes of various industries, in polymer- bitumen compositions . The possibilities of introducing secondary products of the petrochemical and rubber technical industry into the composition of the WM, as well as the possibility of using asbestos, kaolin, montmorillonite, karelite and other fillers are generalized. It has been experimentally proved that the use of polymeric plasticizing and rubber wastes, as well as mineral components in the composition of WM, made it possible to obtain a composition having advantages in strength of adhesion and conventional strength up to 3 times, in water absorption up to 5 times, in relative elongation up to 7.5 times, in comparison with regulatory requirements.
Keywords: waterproofing mastic, roofing, polymer-bitumen binder, production waste, mineral filler, cost, strength, water absorption, heat resistance
The article deals with the problems of using structural systems with outriggers for high-rise buildings. The analysis of various designs is carried out, the features of their work are specified, the advantages and disadvantages are identified, the areas of their application.
Keywords: high-rise building, structural system, outrigger, skyscraper, column, core of rigidity, strength, reliability, horizontal load, aerodynamics
The possibility of obtaining quick fixing glue of C0-C2 classes on the basis of gypsum-aluminous expanding cement modified with Portland cement is shown. It was found that the strength of adhesion to the base and the amplitude of deformations during hardening of the quick fixing glue based on the MGGRC essentially depends on the ratio of GC: G: PC in the binder composition, and the direct relationship between the dosage of the PPP in the adhesive composition and the strength of adhesion to the base is not traced. It was revealed that the PPP and VMD positively influence the early strength of adhesion to the base, but at the age of 28 days the influence of the VSD becomes negative. A decrease in the strength of adhesion to the base was found with an increase in the tensile strength of the adhesive for bending. There is no direct relationship between the adhesion strength and the amplitude of glue deformations during hardening.
Keywords: dry building mixes, bond strength, hypoglycous expanded cement, fast fixing glue
The possibility of obtaining fast-hardening levelers for the floor (monolithic screeds) with a compression strength of more than 20 MPa based on gypsum-alumina expanding cement modified by Portland cement (MGRC) is shown. It is established that the kinetics of the compressive strength is mainly determined by the ratio of HZ:G:PTS МGGRC in the composition, the superplasticizer (SP) and esters of methyl cellulose have a negative impact on the buildup of strength in the early period and the value of design strength, as silica fume does not affect the kinetics of strength in the early period and the project age. The ratio of the limits of tensile strength in bending and compression influence internal structural stresses caused by the mismatch between the extension and strength growth in time due to different additive effects of SP and cellulose ethers on the kinetics of formation of hydrocortamate and calcium hydrosilicates.
Keywords: dry mortar, adhesion strength, gipsovoloknistyh expanding cement, glue quick fix
The paper considers the main factors determining the quality of underground water deposits within the RO, done hydrochemical and geoecological assessment of groundwater RO. The entropy of the groundwater ecosystem is calculated. It was found that most of the deposits have an entropy of less than 30%. that is, the water is clean enough, not experienced external influences. However, the water quality has deviations in individual indicators from the requirements of SanPiN 126.96.36.1994-01, which can be eliminated by conventional methods of water treatment.
Keywords: groundwater, hydrogeochemical heterogeneity, classification of groundwater, drinking water
The article analyzes the reasons for the energy intensity of the Russian economy, as well as the existing problems of energy saving in the housing stock of Russian cities as one of the element in the housing and communal services system. The authors proposed strategic directions of energy saving for all participants of the housing and utilities sector. Prospective directions of the solution of the problem of energy saving in this area are noted.
Keywords: energy intensity of the economy, energy saving, energy efficiency improvement, housing and communal services, housing stock, participants in the housing and utilities sector
The article considers the use of renewable energy sources in construction in general and in high-rise unique buildings. Such an approach will allow to design and build buildings in which integrated renewable energy sources can be harmoniously entered into all aspects of construction. This is especially true for high-rise buildings. With the implementation of energy-efficient technologies, the main drawback - high energy consumption - will be cut off. The article analyzes non-traditional sources of energy, such as wind, solar, land, water and biomass. The relevance of their application in construction and influence on all aspects of the project is proved: town-planning, functional, space-planning, architectural and artistic, constructive and engineering.
Keywords: renewable energy source, high-rise building, bioenergy, solar energy, wind energy, aerodynamics, energy-efficient technology, architectural and artistic appearance, planning solution, optimal shape of the building.aerodynamics
The article studies the power divider of 10-centimeter range. A description of the scheme and design of the power divider on the air-strip transmission line. The analysis of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the power divider in the forward and lateral shoulders with the help of the Microwave Office package is carried out. The model of the power divider is experimentally studied, the following results are obtained: in the band from 2.4 to 3.7 GHz, losses do not exceed 4.3 dB, and the unevenness does not exceed 1.7 dB.
Keywords: power Divider, directional coupler, plume bridge, amplitude-frequency characteristic, losses, unevenness
The use of the concept of "potential" in the performance of research in construction, as a rule, does not imply its quantitative assessment. The purpose of this work is to offer a quantitative assessment for the indicator "internal potential of the construction process". The use of statistical and abstract-logical methods of research allowed to develop a system of quantitative evaluation for the indicator "internal potential of construction technology". Practical application the value of this indicator in relation to a single technological process in construction can be used to calculate the speed (or duration) of construction, as well as prospects for development under the influence of scientific and technological progress.
Keywords: internal potential of construction technology, organizational and technological solution, organizational and economic solution, speed of construction, intensity of construction and installation works, duration of construction of buildings and structures
The purpose of the study is to develop a software – oriented algorithm for calculating flat rod systems with variable length modulus of elasticity. The object of study – a flat rod system, located in a single load, the elements of which are interfaced at the nodes rigidly or pivotally; the shape of the axes and the conditions of the support are set. A special finite element is developed on the basis of the finite element method in the form of a mixed method. To calculate the elements of the response matrix and the vector of freight coefficients, a numerical integration procedure is used. Examples of calculation of cantilever rods in two variants are given: with a variable length modulus of elasticity; and a rod having three, five and seven sections along the length made of different materials. The comparison with the results of other authors is given. A flat frame of four finite elements with variable modulus of elasticity is calculated. The results of solving the examples indicate the correct operation of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the parameters of the stress-strain state of the structure can be adjusted by changing the properties of the material.
Keywords: mixed method, finite element, variable modulus of elasticity, response matrix
the article considers the basic requirements for lighting airports, provides recommendations for design, as well as considered one of the best examples.
Keywords: airport, lighting, illumination, interior
The paper deals with statically determinate and statically indeterminate reinforced beams of a rectangular cross-section of bimodule material loaded with a uniformly distributed load. Since for heterogeneous materials, the elastic modulus for tension and compression are different, the work aimed to study the influence of different boundary conditions in statically indeterminate beams on SSS. It is shown that the magnitude of the maximum normal stresses is less than the stresses found without taking into account the bimodule nature of the beam material, both in statically determinate and in statically indeterminate beams. The maximum normal stress and maximum deflection decrease with the transition to a statically indeterminate beam from a similarly statically determined beam by replacing the supports. The method used in work makes it possible to clarify the calculation of strength and rigidity, taking into account the bimodule nature of the material of the reinforced beams, and also to select the optimal fastening of the beams that ensure the bearing capacity of the structure with material saving.
Keywords: reinforced beam, heterogeneity, bimodule material, stress-strain state, normal stresses, deflection, statically indeterminate scheme, bearing capacity, strength, deformability
the article presents the ways of implementation of the strategy focused on the optimization of the process of heat transfer of solar installations, with the applied in their device combined heat exchange panel of aluminum profile elements tightly crimping copper tubes with coolant. Based on the comparative analysis of the two configurations of this device, the methods of heat transfer intensification from the absorbing surface to the working medium in flat-type solar collectors are proposed
Keywords: energy saving, efficiency, optimization, heat transfer, heat capacity, heat exchange panel, heat exchange, solar installation, solar collector, alternative energy sources