There are represented scheme and design of duplexer for the 300-344 MHz radio station. Simulation of duplexer was implemented in Microwave Office environment. Experimental research was executed on the complex transmission coefficient measuring instrument such as “Obzor-103”. There are shown amplitude-frecuency characteristic of receive and transmission channels. Comparison of the simulations results with natural experiment proving the identical.
Keywords: Filter, duplexer, amplitude-frequency characteristics, receive channel, transmission channel
The possible ways of research and development of management of ultra-high-frequency technological complex for the treatment of solids and liquids accumulated in waste storage on horse and livestock farms. Given a classification assessment of existing and proposed integrated model thermoelectrochemical approaches that account for physico-chemical composition of the treated medium. The results of laboratory experiments on drying of processed substances for the justification of integrated management and development of real microwave technological complex are presented.
Keywords: dielectric, dielectric permittivity, microwave heating, humidity, waste, physicochemical composition, mathematical models, technological complex
A novel compact easy-to-manufacture design of 20 dB directional coupler has been proposed for a high power operation within frequency band 4-12 GHz. In order to obtain the broad band frequency response a three-section asymmetric coupled strip-line directional coupler has been chosen. The periodic structures are introduced on the outer edges of coupled strip-lines for the wide-band compensation of the difference between phase velocities of even and odd modes. The successfully fabricated and tested coupler shows high electrical performances. The proposed 20 dB directional coupler provides within frequency band 4-12 GHz the coupling characteristic imbalance 0.5 dB, isolation 35 dB, directivity 15 dB and VSWR<1.35. The allowable input power of directional coupler is up to 100 W. The coupler dimensions are 39x35x26 mm.
Keywords: directional coupler, coupled strip-lines, even and odd modes, periodic structures, phase velocity of modes, lines with side coupling
A study of the directional coupler range 1-4GHz. The description of the construction on a symmetrical strip line with a lateral connection is given. The amplitude-frequency characteristics were simulated using the Microwave Office package. The model of the directional coupler is experimentally investigated, the following results are obtained: the working attenuation does not exceed 1.7 dB, the transient attenuation does not exceed 10 dB.
Keywords: Directional coupler, frequency response, flatness, symmetric stripline
This article discusses various configurations of dielectric inhomogeneous waveguides in the microwave range, discusses the results of computer electrodynamic modeling of the proposed configurations of structures with periodic inhomogeneities. During the simulation, the geometric and electrophysical parameters of the periodic structure were varied in order to identify their influence on the characteristics of the proposed sensor to determine the properties of liquid dielectric media.
Keywords: dielectric waveguide, Bragg reflection, dielectric constant, reflection coefficient
The article focuses on radiowave propagation in complex conditions combining rough terrain with woodland or urban areas. The estimation of influence of all these factors on signal attenuation may be challenging. Consequently there are no propagation models for such environment for distances up to several kilometers. However by approximating the experimental data on radio wave attenuation it is possible to develop empirical propagation models for specific cases. The authors carried out a series of experiments to measure the level of radio signal at a given distance from the source. Based on the experimental results a hybrid model for rough terrain, wooded and urban areas for ground communications systems was developed.
Keywords: radiowave propagation, UHF, experimental study, rough terrain, urban area, wooded area, empirical model, radiowave attenuation, path loss, ground mobile communication
The statistical characteristics and results of the FIPS 140-2 tests of a new class of pseudo-random signal generators based on modified Lorentz, Chua and Dmitriev-Kislov systems over the finite Galois field are considered. The estimates of the sidelobe levels of the correlation functions of the signals, as well as histograms of the probability distributions of the generated numbers, are obtained. Evaluations of compliance with the requirements of the FIPS 140-2 test of binary sequences generated on the basis of systems under variation of their parameters are obtained. The results of the work can be used in the construction of communication systems with broadband signals, simulation and cryptography.
Keywords: dynamic chaos, radioelectronic dynamic systems, statistical properties
A theoretical calculation of the transmission coefficient of the microwave converter on a resonant tunneling diode, where the same diode is used as a mixer and amplifier of microwave oscillations, is carried out. In this case, as shown by calculations, the transmission coefficient increases due to the use of regeneration, and also because the non-linearity of the current-voltage characteristic of a resonant tunneling diode is much larger than that of conventional microwave diodes with a Schottky barrier.
Keywords: transfer coefficient, regeneration, resonant tunnel diode (RTD), volt-ampere characteristic (VAC), input amplifier, equivalent mixer, intermediate frequency transfer coefficient, input amplifier transfer coefficient, dual-barrier heterostructure
Frequency divider based on linear logic is considered. The circuit design concept is based on current mirrors, that provide low dependence from supply voltage. The circuit design of frequency divider and results of simulation on 0.25 um CMOS technology are presented. Additionally, advantages in controlling current consumption and output voltages by changing the value of the reference resistor are shown.
Keywords: frequency divider, current logic, linear algebra
Digital signal processing is commonly used in system engineering of a new state of the art. The monotonic (maximally-flat) step response of the high pass filter is required, for example, in the case of testing for a negative signal present against the background of the positive rectangular impulse of rather higher amplitude. Or, conversely, to determine whether a positive signal is present against the background of the negative rectangular impulse. As this takes place, a signal pass is allowed, but a false detection is not allowed. The reason of the false detection can be a negative overshoot on the step response of the high-pass filter that is used for suppressing a dc component and decreasing flicker noises. This case we can see in electromyography, for example, when weak nerves signal follows the strong test electrical pulse. Approximations of analog filters via a bilinear transformation had been used to research of digital filters first order filters differing step response monotone and the results of these researches are outlined in this paper. The block diagrams of digital filters featuring a more monotonous step response, but with an overshoot on the frequency response in a passband near to the cutoff frequency are offered. The requirements have been analyzed at which a negative effect of this overshoot is being reduced.
Keywords: filter, digital, high pass, HPF, monotonic, maximally-flat, step response
Digital signal processing is commonly used in system engineering of a new state of the art. The monotonic (maximally-flat) step response of the high pass filter is required, for example, in the case of testing for a negative signal present against the background of the positive rectangular impulse of rather higher amplitude. Or, conversely, to determine whether a positive signal is present against the background of the negative rectangular impulse. As this takes place, a signal pass is allowed, but a false detection is not allowed. The reason of the false detection can be a negative overshoot on the step response of the high-pass filter that is used for suppressing a dc component and decreasing flicker noises. This case we can see in electromyography, for example, when weak nerves signal follows the strong test electrical pulse. Approximations of analog filters via a bilinear transformation had been used to research of digital filters Bessel and Gaussian filters differing in the greatest step response monotone (especially Gaussian filters) and the results of these researches are outlined in this paper. The block diagrams of digital filters featuring a more monotonous step response, but with an overshoot on the frequency response in a passband near to the cutoff frequency are offered. The requirements have been analyzed at which a negative effect of this overshoot is being reduced.
Keywords: filter, digital, high pass, HPF, monotonic, maximally-flat, step response
This article analyzes the possibility of decomposing a radio engineering system into parts, provided that one of the two stabilizing parameters of the coupling scheme is adjusted. An analytical calculation was made (in general), which proves the possibility of adjusting only one stabilizing parameter in the coupling scheme. A numerical example is provided confirming the above idea.
Keywords: HIL simulation, radio engineering system, decomposition, coupling scheme, stabilizing parameter, coupling two-port network, ideal time delay line, Schur complement, Y-parameters
The article presents information about the training program "Use of information technologies in engineering, scientific, administrative and management activities", developed within the framework of the project of the "Engineering open public forum of scientific and technological activities, social and technological entrepreneurship "rozmys", which is carried out using the grant of the President of the Russian Federation for the development of civil society, provided by the presidential grants Fund. The program is intended for a wide range of engineers and specialists of industrial enterprises, scientists, research engineers, University professors, specialists in the field of administrative and management activities. In it, participants are invited to master a number of professional competencies in the field of organizational management using computer modeling. Forms of training are distance video lectures and practical classes. For each topic, an intermediate test is carried out, and their results are put up a final assessment. Participants who have successfully completed the training receive a certificate confirming the passage of 16 hour refresher course on our program.
Keywords: distance education, advanced training, organizational management, computer modeling, computer simulators
Red blood cells (RBC) roll like tractor caterpillars along narrow capillaries. On the erythrocyte surface there are charges that, when moving together with the erythrocyte membrane, create a magnetic field in the vicinity of the RBC. Discrete charges are distributed uniformly on the surface of the RBC, their number can reach several million and the charges move together with the RBC membrane. The surface of the RBC is approximated by a truncated cylinder. Discrete charges are located evenly over the surface of the RBC and move along closed curves that are rectangular trapezoids. A mathematical model has been constructed that allows calculating the intensity of the magnetic field produced by mobile charges located on the RBC membrane. According to the Bio-Savart law, the magnetic field strength can be calculated at some point in space if the coordinates and velocity of the charge are known, the distance from the charge to the point and the angle between the velocity vector and the radius vector connecting the charge and the point. If we assume in the first approximation that the medium is isotropic and magnetic currents are absent, then Maxwell's equations can be written out. These equations can be rewritten in the form of equations in finite differences, solving by numerical methods one can obtain distributions of electric and magnetic field strengths in the vicinity of the RBC. Calculations were carried out for different values of input parameters. In the case when the RBCs move through the capillary network, in which the narrow capillaries are located close to each other, the magnetic fields of the RBCs in different capillaries interact, and, as a result, we obtain a new distribution of the magnetic field strength in the vicinity of the capillary network, which varies with time.
Keywords: mathematical model, algorithm, magnetic field strength, electromagnetic interaction, erythrocyte, narrow capillary
the article attempts to build a causal model of social exclusion from the standpoint of the concept of "life situation". To build such a model by means of cause-and-effect analysis, it is necessary to find a thematically relevant starting point, from which in the future, in the dichotomous sense, observations will be made about the exclusion or inclusion in a particular subsystem of society, which will allow to determine a set of indicators to measure inclusion in each specific situation. Next, it is possible to set the degree of inclusion in the appropriate subsystem.
Keywords: social exclusion, social inclusion, life situation, life chances, causal model of exclusion
The article is devoted to the study of the thyristor regulator of the booster voltage harmonic composition in the mode of longitudinal-transverse regulation. The results of the harmonic analysis of thyristor regulator output voltage , obtained using simulation in the Simulink package, are presented.
Keywords: longitudinal-transverse regulation, thyristor regulator, regulating characteristics, modeling, harmonic analysis, Matlab Simulink
The object of research in the presented work is the influence of photogrammetric and internal refractions on the definition of linear elements of external orientation. At the conclusion of photogrammetry formulas it is supposed that the light beam is a straight line from the object to the center of the projection. In fact a beam of light passing through the atmosphere layers of various density is bent. This bend is called refraction. The determination of the elements of internal and external orientation and corrections to the coordinates of the points of the image by control points is based upon a decision of the spatial photogrammetric back-sight. Compared to the rigorous method a simpler method for solving the spatial photogrammetric back-sight is suggested which validity check performed by the modeling method showed its rather high accuracy.
Keywords: photogrammetry, back-sight, spatial photogrammetric back-sight, refraction, elements of internal and external orientation, control points, modeling method
Research of models of formation of integration projects on the basis of points of growth reveals a number of important aspects related to the stages and management of their implementation. The focus on the formation and support of growth points essentially excludes the use of unary models in the planning and implementation of projects within the framework of national programs. In order to overcome the limitations imposed by this type of project, various integrative mechanisms are proposed. The peculiarity of the considered binary models describing the integration mechanisms is the preservation of the basic cycle of the project points of growth within the national program. However, the introduction of additional contours in the model with growth accelerators, with related or integrated projects, as well as attracted resources can reduce the risks caused by high rates of development and innovation issues. The integration potential of the binary model with the project of the growth point in the basic circuit generates a dynamic competitive advantage, i.e. a sustainable, increasing advantage over time that is not related to the amount of initial funding. This advantage generates a powerful growth cycle that can provide a significant increase in profitability over a long period of time. The integrative nature of growth point projects should be envisaged already at the planning stage of national programmes with appropriate monitoring and funding instruments.
Keywords: Decree of the President of Russia, southern Federal district, points of growth, model, project, program, integration, mechanism
The article provides a solution a schedule generation problem for the timber transportation, a description of the problem is given, and a multi-criteria mathematical model is created. It is indicated that the task in question can be assigned to the class of vehicle routing problems in the general formulation of GVRP related to the job-shop scheduling. A hybrid algorithm for solving the problem based on the decomposition method using the simplex method and the genetic algorithm was developed. Conducted testing showed the effectiveness of the developed method on real data of wood harvesting enterprises. The results of numerical methods testing on real data suggest a reduction of the complexes of forest transport machines downtime, and an increase of transported wood volume during the planning period. The scientific results presented in the article were used in the development of a planning and management system «Opti-Wood» developed by Opti-Soft company.
Keywords: wood harvesting, GVRP, optimization, job shop scheduling, operational logistics, genetic algorithm
The intensification of petrochemical production imposes serious requirements on the operation of all automated production systems. The increase in the degree of automation leads to an increase in the level of aberration of the automated process control system and the entire production as a whole. The use of poorly populated technologies, minimizing the presence and participation of maintenance personnel in the operation of facilities, is achievable only with the use of monitoring and diagnostic systems for the technical condition of equipment and automation equipment.
Keywords: statistical research, technical diagnostics, diagnosis, differentiation of scientific research in the field of technical diagnostics, decision making, fuzzy logic, neural network, predictive model, uncertainty
The article deals with the problem of optimal control of the train (OKT) from the standpoint of the modern theory of automatic control. This problem is relevant for many years, but to date it has not been completely solved, due to the large number of random factors affecting the nature of the train, as well as the development in recent years of high-speed and high-speed, as well as heavy and long-range traffic. The mathematical model of train movement and formulation of the OKT problem are presented, the classification of known methods of its solution is offered. A simulation model in Matlab/Simulink environment is developed, which allows to study different models and control laws. A metaheuristic algorithm for optimization of train operating modes using a simulation model implemented in the form of a software module in Matlab is proposed. The results of computational experiments confirming the convergence of the algorithm are presented.
Keywords: optimal control, autodriving, mathematical model, simulation model, metaheuristic algorithm
The article presents a hardware genetic algorithm for the synthesis of finite state machines. Testing of the proposed genetic algorithm has shown that its use improves the quality of solving problems of the synthesis of finite automata in combination with a decrease in the time of obtaining a optimal solution (compared to algorithms known in this field). It also describes the hardware and software platform used to build evolutionary hardware. The system was testing by synthesis of finite state machine in the problem of "Smart Ant"
Keywords: evolutionary synthesis, finite state machines, genetic algorithms, evolutionary algorithms, evolutionary electronics
The application of the parameters of the modes of signal allocated using the extremal filtering algorithm is considered. The use and disadvantages of amplitude detectors are described. Use of attenuation are described and shows how to reduce the effect of ""overshoots"". It is proposed to use a combined sign for a more contrast extracting of detection areas. A method for reducing the labor intensity is presented, which consists in applying filtering directly to a number of extrema, without calculating the smoothed components.A method was chosen that allows the signal analysis algorithm to be adapted to work in real time.
Keywords: Security system, diagnostic signs, extreme filtering, mods, real time
This article reveals the scientific and theoretical approaches to the study of social issues in the language context. The authors attempt to present a two-dimensional model of giving the meaning to the modern verbal space. This model offers insights into the process of the formation of social scenarios that are fixed in the language space. In addition, the model developed by the authors provides a researcher with a complete picture of the dynamics of social processes in society, represented by addressing the phenomenon of language as a universal socio-cultural code
Keywords: semiotic model, verbal space, social scenario, discourse, language, social space, socio-cultural code, social phenomenon, sign system