Historical look to innovative processes in modern Russia. Strategy of innovative development. Methods of innovations' administration'.
Keywords: innovation, methods of managing, strategy of innovative development
This article is devoted to the problem of heterogeneity of brickwork materials, in particular bricks, in buildings of cultural heritage and identified historical significance, the main building structures of which are made of brickwork. The relevance of this research topic is due to the increased interest in recent years in a detailed study of the behavior of the work and the physical and mechanical properties of structural materials of buildings and structures related to cultural heritage sites, historical and architectural monuments. The author provides an overview of the literature sources related to the pre-revolutionary period and modern publications that reveal the understanding of the use of heterogeneous materials in the brickwork of building structures. The article analyzes the reasons for the use of materials with different physical and mechanical characteristics in the brickwork of preserved historical buildings, the age of which exceeds 100 years or more.
Keywords: bricklaying, re-laying, restoration, bricklaying of historical buildings and structures, heterogeneity of bricklaying materials, physical and mechanical characteristics of bricklaying materials
This article examines the existing methods of organizing construction production, such as: sequential, parallel, flow, and flow-operational, flow-dismembered and flow-complex methods. The features of their formation and differences in the parameters of the duration of construction and the use of resources are determined. Considered and analyzed one of the key and main processes in the organization and planning of construction - the formation of flows. Methods for determining the sequence of construction of complexes of buildings and structures and methods for their optimization, which are aimed at achieving the final result - putting into operation a complex of objects with the required quality and on time, are investigated. As a result, it was concluded that the decisions and methods adopted in the process of developing organizational and technological solutions should ensure the continuity of construction production, competent management of all resources, correct interconnection of all types of work and their execution on time.
Keywords: organizational and technological solutions; integrated construction; сonstruction production; planning; work organization methods; complex flows; construction duration
This article discusses the initial conditions in the field of the regulatory framework for the implementation of BIM technology in the Russian Federation. The problems that may be encountered in the transition to building information modeling are identified, as well as the reasons why this transition is complicated in a short time. New projects and published regulatory documents are explained and regulated the transition to building information modeling are briefly considered. A structural hierarchy is formed according to the importance of the documents, and an overview of the missing documents that should be developed and adopted in the future is given. The materials contained in the article will help to understand the features of individual regulatory documents, refer to the primary sources, namely, the texts of the documents themselves, and provide a complete knowledge of the regulatory and technical framework.
Keywords: regulatory documents, technical customer, BIM, information modeling, data environment, regulatory and technical base
Architecture designed in accordance with the principles of sustainable development becomes an important part of the path towards achieving sustainable development of the economy, society, the environment and architecture itself at the same time. This article explored the basic definitions, principles, and factors to consider when designing a sustainable architecture. A sustainable development model was also demonstrated, which provides an understanding of how sustainable design works.
Keywords: architecture, sustainable development, low carbon, ecology, global warming, design
The article emphasizes the importance of monolithic construction and substantiates its advantages. At the same time, it is noted that the erection of monolithic reinforced concrete structures is a laborious process, especially when it comes to the construction and stripping of the formwork system. It is indicated that the large weight of modern formwork systems reduces the manufacturability of work, and therefore, active research is currently underway to develop formwork systems made of composite materials that are lightweight, durable, relatively durable, safe and environmentally friendly. The technologies for creating formwork systems are given.
Keywords: inventory and fixed formwork systems, selection criteria, additive and traditional technologies
The article reveals the problem of unreasonable overestimation of the durability of roofs made of polymer membranes, which was allowed during their mass introduction in our country in construction and repair and construction production. The article contains a description and illustrations of characteristic cracks that have arisen on a large area of the membrane roof, which have brought it into an inoperative state. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of the causes of the origin of these cracks, including the influence of the design features of membrane roofs, the aggressive effect of solar radiation and large hail on them. It is concluded that it is necessary to choose more UV-resistant polymer roofing membranes.
Keywords: construction, building, membrane roof, polymer membrane, durability, aggressive effects, hail, damage, cracks, inoperable condition
The analysis of the use of renewable energy sources in Russia is carried out. The main features of the use of energy-efficient technologies in construction are considered. On the example of the construction of a 9-storey residential building, a comprehensive analysis of the construction area is performed. Solutions with the use of energy-efficient and green technologies are proposed.
Keywords: construction, energy-efficient technologies, green technologies, renewable energy sources, energy saving, energy efficiency
This article provides information that there are different categories of users with different groups of behavioral features. All this data is separated from each other. In the course of this work, it was found that if all data on user models are combined into one method, then the analysis by which information about a virtual person is obtained can lead to improved adaptability of web resources using new technologies.
Keywords: usability, virtual reality, types of virtual personalities, segmentation, socialization, user, Internet
The theme of secure applications is considered, using various techniques and the proposal of a graph calculation model of testograms
Keywords: application security testing, testograms, test trees
The creation of laboratory equipment that provides a clear demonstration of the studied technological processes while ensuring the possibility of its use for research purposes by students is an urgent task. Purpose of the work: development of a stand design for a visual demonstration to students of the process of the impact of the cutting working body on the workpiece while ensuring the possibility of fixing the characteristics of the cutting process. In the course of the work, on the basis of system analysis, the classification of laboratory equipment for studying the cutting process was carried out, its features were studied, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages, and an original design of the stand was proposed. The design of the stand provides an opportunity to study the characteristics of the cutting process with a fixed fixation of the workpiece and the movement of the cutting tool, which clearly simulates the real cutting process and allows you to determine its parameters.
Keywords: cutting, chip formation, student training
The paper discusses the principles and algorithms for increasing the efficiency of the functioning of fire departments through management innovations, including insurance principles for compensation for damage and financing of units of the State Fire Service (SFS), attraction of leasing and outsourcing tools. As a basis for modeling the influence of innovative factors on the efficiency of fire suppression, a model of insurance coverage for fire departments, taking into account the insurance burden on groups of the population of the Russian Federation, was adopted. In calculations and estimates, official data from fire statistics and Rosstat were used.
Keywords: innovation, outsourcing, leasing, insurance rate, compensation for damage, commercial fire departments, application scenarios
The article deals with the priority passage of regulated intersections by public transport using the method of extending the permitting signal. The relevance of the problem under consideration is due to insufficient study of the issue of choosing the optimal control parameters for the method of extending the resolving signal. Using simulation modeling, a study was carried out of the priority passage control process on two- and three-lane road sections. In the course of the experiment, the dependences between the extension time of the allowed signal and the cycle duration were determined at different ratios of the phase coefficients, as well as the optimal distance of the priority activation detectors. The obtained results of the research work can be used in the design of the urban intelligent transport system and when adjusting the control modes in the automated traffic control system of the urban agglomeration.
Keywords: priority movement of urban passenger transport, transport detectors, intelligent transport systems, simulation, traffic light control parameters
The issues of modeling the interaction of humans and robots in a common operating environment are considered in order to select the optimal parameters of such a system. The context of the application of multi-agent robotic systems (MRTS) is the monitoring of a fire hazardous area. The homogeneous MRTS includes unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) that cyclically perform operations of flying around their area of the territory (with identification of fires) in an autonomous mode, returning to the charging base, waiting for charging, charging, returning to their area of responsibility, flying around their area, etc. etc. An operator works in the charging area, to which the UAVs should not approach less than a certain distance. The system is presented as a multi-channel queuing system (in the charging area). A simulation model is constructed that allows, according to the data of many runs, to construct polynomial regression dependences of the quality indicators of the MRTS operation on its parameters, by which to solve the multicriteria problem of choosing the optimal parameters of the MRTS charging terminal.
Keywords: cobots, simulation, unmanned aerial vehicles, queuing system, regression equations, optimization
Currently, Russian Railways are characterized by an increase in the weight of trains, an expansion of the fleet of sections with high-speed movement of electric rolling stock. All this leads to a complication of the operating modes of the power supply system, increased liability and possible damage from idle trains. At the same time, monitoring systems of the contact network, as an element of the power supply system that does not have a reserve, are of particular importance. On a significant number of sections of the Russian Railways, the wires and cables of the contact network are subject to ice and frost formations and, as a result, serious operational risks and costs. Minimizing the damage caused by the formation of ice and measures to eliminate it is possible if it is detected at the initial stage. The article provides an assessment of the possibility of using systems based on changes in the weight of wires for the purposes of early detection of ice and frost formations.
Keywords: ice and frost formations, early detection, contact network, carrier cable, contact wire
The article deals with the forecasting of direct material damage to urban areas depending on the number of fires based on official data of the Ministry of Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters, presented in state reports on the state of protection of the population and territories of the Russian Federation from natural and man-made emergencies for five years, based on the model of correlation analysis, which allows us to determine the degree of mutual influence of the parameters under consideration and the linear regression responsible for determining trends for subsequent years. The analysis of the reasons associated with the lack of the possibility of assessing the damage resulting from the fire of the structures of the building or its premises and its subsequent extinguishing in order to increase the economic efficiency of the cost examination during the restoration of real estate is an auxiliary basis for the construction of a correlation-regressive forecasting model.
Keywords: fires, cost assessment, cost of restoration repairs, real estate objects, economic efficiency, statistics, direct material damage, correlation and regression analysis
The article proposes one of the elements for solving the problem of digital transformation of universities - a digital service that automates the accounting of attendance and student progress during the semester. This information system as web service for users of different categories: teachers, employees of dean's offices, educational departments and the students themselves is aimed at improving the quality of education through operational monitoring and analysis of key indicators, as well as reducing the complexity of solving this problem. The article describes a domain model in the form of a UML diagram. We also analyzed the results of implementation and their impact on the quality of the educational process.
Keywords: university, automation, electronic journal, digitalization, digital transformation, information system, educational process management, electronic information and educational system
This article examines the implications of the application of quantum computing in the field of image processing. A basic conversion associated with gray level processing, such as an image negative, is considered. The article shows how this operation can be expressed using quantum formalism. Whether quantum image processing (in some aspects or some specific applications) has an advantage over classical image processing in realistic scenarios remains to be seen. This depends on solving a number of problems, some of which are unique to quantum image processing, such as feature extraction of a quantum image. Some of them are common to quantum algorithms, such as noise processing. Identifying one of them will significantly speed up the study of this field.
Keywords: qubit, quantum circuit, entanglement, quantum circuit, register, quantum recognition, gate, parallelism, interference, quantum computer
This article is devoted to solving the problem of research and development of methods for the functioning of quantum algorithms and models of quantum computing devices. The quantum algorithm, implemented in the work, makes it possible to transform a classical image into a quantum state, isolate boundaries and convert a halftone image to a binary one, shows the possibilities of quantum information theory in the interpretation of classical problems. The aim of the work is computer simulation of a quantum algorithm for solving the problem of transforming a classical image using quantum computing tools and methods, studying existing pattern recognition algorithms and creating an effective recognition model using the properties and methods of quantum computing. The relevance of these studies lies in mathematical and software modeling and implementation of a quantum algorithm for solving classes of problems of a classical nature. The scientific novelty of this area is primarily expressed in the constant updating and supplementation of the field of quantum research in a number of areas, and the computer simulation of quantum physical phenomena and features is poorly covered in the world.
Keywords: quantum algorithm, quantum bit, quantum computing model, quantum circuit, entanglement, quantum circuit, register, quantum recognition, gate, parallelism, interference, quantum computer
The article discusses transfer learning methods of convolutional neural network VGG16 for solving the problem of object recognition in images from UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). In the absence of the required amount of initial information, it is proposed to work on the augmented dataset. The article presents the architecture of a neural network and considered its action on a specific example. When developing a service, loading the image and displaying the results of the model, was used Flask framework, training of models took place using a cloud service Google Colab based on Jupyter Notebook.
Keywords: deep learning, neural networks, object recognition, data augmentation
The continually increasing rate of human economic activity leads to changes in many natural systems. Their restoration is one of the most important tasks today. For this purpose, protected areas have been created, such as natural reserves, national parks, and wildlife sanctuaries. National parks are of particular interest, as they are the only protected areas listed above where tourism is allowed and organized. However, their activities cannot exist without sufficient financial support. This article describes a two-level optimal control model of the national park activity. For the purpose of exploring and analysing the proposed model, an algorithm that can be used to find the Stackelberg equilibrium guaranteeing the sustainable development of the national park is proposed and implemented in software.
Keywords: two-level hierarchical model, Stackelberg equilibrium, national park, leader, follower,subjects of management ,control parameters
This article uses the structural-functional method. The proposed study shows how many factors influence the performance, efficiency of enterprises and how important it is to follow the latest technologies and vectors of their development. Everything is important, from the material and technical equipment of personnel to the timely replacement of obsolete or outdated devices that have reached the limit of their own reliability. No reliance should be placed solely on technical means or personnel performance - these two crucial aspects must work together, be continuously monitored and have everything they need to perform their tasks in a quality and timely manner. It is also important to learn from the experience of previous years, so that it is possible to understand what mistakes have been made and, therefore, to act appropriately in order to avoid them again. It is also important to develop such positive trends as the transition to remote control of relay protection devices. To date, we must pay special attention to information security of the complexes' operation during the transition to remote control, as the current realities of work at power facilities require exactly that. Equally important is the purpose of this article to forecast future trends in RPA development over a period of twenty years.
Keywords: relay protection and automation, improvement of the regulatory framework, introduction of relay protection
Mathematical modeling and optimization of the process of controlling the sulfate regime when the apatite load changes on the phosphoric acid extractor is considered. It is shown that the preservation of the "sulfuric acid/apatite" ratio with a sharp change in the apatite consumption leads to a violation of the technological regulations for SO3. The algorithm of correction of this ratio in the transition mode is developed, which minimizes the probability of violation of the regulatory indicators. A variant of implementing the optimal apatite load correction procedure using stand-alone scenarios is proposed. The results were confirmed during the simulation.
Keywords: algorithm, mathematical model, stabilization of the sulfate regime, extraction phosphoric acid, change in the load on the extractor, phosphorus yield coefficient from apatite, optimization, autonomous scripts