the article considers the basic requirements for lighting airports, provides recommendations for design, as well as considered one of the best examples.
Keywords: airport, lighting, illumination, interior
The article presents the results of studies to determine the energy efficiency of the two options for the mutual placement of the fan and the air heater in the ventilation system. The traditional variant with the installation of the air heater to the fan and the layout solution with the installation of the air heater after the fan are considered. It is shown that thermodynamic processes occur in the systems under consideration, the direction and energy efficiency of which depends on the layout solution of the system. By using the method of analysis of aerodynamic efficiency of ventilation systems, it is proved that the implementation of the objective function of the system with the highest energy efficiency corresponds to the installation of the fan in front of the air heater. This option corresponds to the minimum values of the volumetric capacity of the fan and its power consumption.
Keywords: fan, air heater, ventilation system, heating and ventilation system, energy, power, energy efficiency, energy conversion, mechanical power flow, thermodynamic system
The article deals with topical issues related to the need to improve the efficiency of dust collection systems, the correct choice of the method of purification of emissions and the design of industrial filters linking the operating modes of devices with the properties of the captured dust. A method of complex treatment of emissions with a wet dust collector built into the process line is proposed.
Keywords: wet dust collectors, efficiency, system efficiency, optimization, emissions, ecology, dust collection
The article considers the device for experimental and laboratory testing of microclimate systems. The device is an experimental setup in which it is possible to study the microclimate parameters of multi-functional and multi-level buildings by modeling various processes and their location in the total volume of buildings. Accordingly, with the help of this test model, the parameters of the movement of contaminated air masses and convective flows are studied.
Keywords: test model, installation, microclimate, multi-functional multi-level buildings, process modeling, air, convective flows
Numerical simulation is becoming more and more widespread when solving the problems of air distribution and inflow air rate. One of the questions of using CFD approaches legitimacy is the possibility of a reliable description of the flow in modern air distribution devices. In the present work, physical and numerical experiments were carried out for the SMK 200 jet nozzle diffuser. Velocity profiles were taken at various distances from the jet nozzle during the physical experiment. Numerical investigation tool was the integrated package STAR-CCM +. Numerical simulation was carried out using various turbulence models. Simulation results showed that the use of the k-ɛ models allows to describe the parameters of the flow with sufficient accuracy. Number of cells required for the correct flow description in modern air distribution device is suitable for practical application.
Keywords: air distribution, numerical simulation, turbulence models, physical experiment, jet nozzle diffuser, STAR-CCM+
In the period of sharp warming conditions can occur in which the temperature of the outer surface for some time will be below the ambient air temperature. While warmer ambient air, not in contact with the heated surface of the wall may cause condensation on the surface. The article discusses some of the exterior building envelope, in conditions of rapid warming and condensation process of moisture on the outer surface of the walls. With the help of finite difference method numerical modeling of the thermal regime of the outer surface.
Keywords: Exterior walls, non-stationary conditions, moisture condensation, winter
The article discusses the influence of the distance between the axes of pipes laid on the efficiency of the temperature distribution in the floor heating system. Using the computational experiment was simulated the temperature field on the surface of the floor heating. The calculations are performed using the program ELCUT.
Keywords: underfloor heating, numerical simulation, temperature field, the temperature of the feed piping system radiant heating
This scientific article is focused on researching relevance of geo information system (GIS) application which is used for calculating of gas-distribution networks. The experiment has been made on laboratory stand. This stand has modeled: dead end, looped and mixed gas networks. The results was compared to other results, which were gained from program and settlement complex ZuluGaz 8.0(analogue of the stand). In this complex calculations work in close integration with geo information system and were made in the form of the expansion module of the GIS. Comparative analysis of the ZuluGas 8.0 calculation results of existing gas-distribution network, characteristics of the existing gas-distributing network and results of calculating in program complex (where initially this network has been counted) was made.
Keywords: Gas supplying, natural experiment, modeling, geographic information systems, gas distribution networks, laboratory stand
A scheme of the HVAC system with local (zone) air handling units providing the possibility of heat and humidity treatment of air is developed to maintain the set temperature and relative humidity of the supply air. Features of regulation of moisture content of supply air in HVAC systems are considered and an analysis of air processing processes was carried out using the I-d diagram for the warm and cold periods of the year. A method for control the moisture content of the supply air is described, which allows more accurately to maintain the air parameters when the heat and humidity loads in the serviced rooms change.
Keywords: multizonal HVAC system, local (zone) air handling units, heat and moisture exchange, I-d-diagram, regulation of moisture content
The article considers a method for optimizing circular ducts for ventilation and air conditioning systems. Universal dependencies are given to determine the diameters of the cross-sections of the air ducts and the air velocities in them that are technically and economically optimal. It is shown that the optimum air velocity in the section of the ventilation network does not depend on the site location relative to the fan of the system. Specific examples of determining the optimum diameters of air ducts and air velocities in them with the use of the dependences obtained are given in the technical and economic sense.
Keywords: Аir duct, aerodynamic calculation, ventilation system, air conditioning system, techno-economic optimization, optimal diameter, optimal air speed, energy saving, energy efficiency, aerodynamic efficiency
the article presents the ways to implement the concept of using the secondary energy potential suitable for a less energy-intensive system. The positive aspects of the use of waste gas heat for heating the premises, as well as methods of optimization of processes, in order to improve the efficiency of the system and the preservation of temperature and gas conditions that meet the conditions of permanent residence of a person in the service area
Keywords: energy saving, energy resources, wasteful consumption of resources, energy sources, heating, ventilation, efficiency, loss minimization, utilization of flue gases, optimization, engineering solutions
The aim of this work is determination of regularities that determine the operation parameters of the fan in a thermally non-stationary ventilation system contains a heater located along the air flow after the fan. It is established that the ventilation system, containing the heater, has two characteristics aerodynamic resistance related to the volumetric air flow at the sections of the network before and after the heater. It is proved that when using the superposition method, P-L characteristics to determine the parameters of the fan in the system, you must apply the P-L characteristic of the network is related to the volumetric air flow to the heater. The obtained dependences determine the parameters of the fan depending on its aerodynamic characteristics and the location of the heater in the system.
Keywords: the ventilation system is in a thermally transient mode, fan, heater, energy efficiency, energy conservation
Discusses issues related to the definition of process reliability systems. The dependence to determine the amount of damage accumulation to failure in the presence and absence of the experimental data.
Keywords: aspiration system, process reliability, failure, wear, damage, legal distribution of a random variable, the value of damage accumulation
For the region South of Russia is characterized by abrupt changes of temperature in winter. In the normative literature focuses on how the stationary thermal regime. Not enough investigated how it will affect the thermal design of building envelopes of a sharp increase in outdoor temperature. The paper considers the dynamic change of the temperature distribution of the outer walling for the conditions of rapid warming during winter on the example of enclosing structures made of different materials.
Keywords: dynamic analysis, building walls,temperature distribution, winter conditions
The wide distribution systems radiant panel heating in floor heating in wet areas, allows to increase comfort. Part of the thermal energy will increase the rate of evaporation from wetted surfaces. The article describes mathematical model and algorithm of calculation of the temperature field of the surface subject to evaporation. In the paper numerical experiment to analyze the efficiency of the distribution system temperature floor heating in wet areas.
Keywords: The evaporation of moisture from the surface, phase transition, Underfloor heating, wet rooms, temperature field
With the aim of obtaining objective data about the energy potential of the air flow in the ventilation system proposed to use the parameter "local mechanical power flow". The formulas describing the change of this parameter in different parts of the ventilation system. Describes the author's method of graphic representation of the processes of change of flow parameters in the coordinate axes L - Pn, allowing enough just to determine the change in local mechanical power on isothermal and non-isothermal sections of the ventilation system.
Keywords: ventilation system, fan, mechanical power, heat exchanger, energy efficiency, energy conservation
Discusses current issues related to the definition of the efficiency of ventilation systems on the composite elements of the installation. The dependence for determining the efficiency of the installation taking into account pressure losses in the elements of the installation.
Keywords: ventilation, air supply unit, efficiency, electric motor, quality criteria, pressure loss, power
In the article discusses the features of work air handling unit (AHU) based on spray chamber (SC), developed the design of the test bench and presents the results of the tests SC, identify ways to improve them, particularly in the lower part of the workspace was placed plane-parallel packing. It was established experimentally that the efficiency of processes of heat and moisture transfer increased by an average of 6 - 10%.
Keywords: air handling unit, spray chamber , heat and mass transfer, efficiency
The hydraulic test of perfect dead-end gas network with gas supply source and one consumer is performed by two ways: 1) natural experiment 2) the modelling of system in the specific programmatic sphere. Comparative analysis of natural experiment with the software simulation is performed. The effect of decrease gas load of consumers on optimally pressure of gas supply source is studied. The impact of the selective method of the calculation on the optimal huidraulic mode choice of the network function is analysed. The grafic relations are formed. The coefficient of optimum pressure is calculated and that makes it possible to determine the most adequate pressure of gas as it leaves the gas supply source on the basis of the pressure requirements in gas-based units.
Keywords: Gas supplying, the reliability of gas distribution system, natural experiment, the software simulation
The results of analysis of regulatory requirements for dust collection systems based on existing environmental legislation. Development of systems for dust collection and dust extractor is using the tools of quality management. It has established a set of basic technical requirements for systems of dust removal and their parts taking into account modern requirements for energy efficiency.
Keywords: ecology, environmental regulations, dust collection, air quality management, dust collectors, energy efficiency
The results of the analysis of the energy efficiency of water heating's accession to the heat network. Introduced the concept of the coefficient of the hydropower efficiency. Discusses the features of its calculation in the dependent scheme of attaching the water heating system of consumers to the heat network and the independent circuit.
Keywords: Heat supply network, individual heating unit, water heating system, energy efficiency, hydropower efficiency ratio
The article is devoted to the improvement of heat exchangers for use of secondary heat potential gas-flow aspiration schemes in the construction industry. The use of waste heat from the thermal processing equipment raw materials and products can save the amount of fuel burned in the whole cycle of thermal power enterprises. It was researched and proposed improving of design and development of new heat-saving device for the effective use of secondary heat energy resources of hot gases’ emission of aspiration schemes at building industry. There is presented some results of a study of the heat transfer parameters in the proposed design device with fluidized bed of granular material as a the form of nozzle in this article. It was obtained and observed the regression relations for a few fluidized bed of granular material in the form of pellets, granules in the general kind of one’s. The design of the fluidized bed heat exchanger for efficient use (recycling) secondary heat and mass exchanging devices and determine the heat transfer coefficients in the range of effective modes of operation for use in aspiration schemes at building enterprises. There is presented the result of the executed experimental research and modeling in the form of generalized regression dependence for the the Nusselt criterion relations to determine the heat transfer coefficient from the particles to the solid tube’ wall where water is circulated inside within the fluidized bed granules in this article. It’s and to be heated in proposed. Efficient use of resources through the secondary heat from waste is also one of the most effective ways to implement measures to reduce thermal pollution and improve the environmental safety of the construction industry as a whole. Modernization of technologies and devices, providing a more efficient use of heat and energy resources and heat pollution of environment simultaneously, is an important task of innovative development and transformation of the industry construction and country. It was mentioned the some recommendations for proposed device’ use in the construction industry.
Keywords: granule, a heat exchanger, fluidized bed, building material, speed, pollution, environment, scheme, aspiration, recovery and heat savings
The article is devoted to the problem of modeling heat exchangers with fluidized packing of disperse material whenшы used in aspiration schemes at construction industry enterprises. Innovative transformation of industry and construction industry is associated with the most complete and effective use of thermal, energy potentials including low-potential secondary resources. The use of waste gas heat from equipment during thermal processing of raw materials and products, and ejecting in aspiration schemes, allows to reduce the specific consumption of fuel burned per unit of output production by the construction industry enterprises. There is presented an approach to modeling and calculation of heat transfer in the apparatus of the proposed design with a nozzle in the form of a fluidized bed of granules of a dispersed material in this article. There is presented the result of the executed experimental research and modeling in the form of generalized regression dependence for the the Nusselt criteria relations to determine the heat transfer coefficient from the particles to the solid tube’ wall where water is circulated inside within the fluidized bed granules in this article. It was described generalized form of the regression relation for the calculation of heat transfer in a heat exchanger with a fluidized bed of packing dispersed materials in the form of granules in this article.
Keywords: modeling, heat exchanger, fluidization, bed, material, velocity, criteria, pollution, atmosphere, scheme, aspiration
One of the most important systems for ensuring the required air quality in Orthodox churches is the ventilation system. Mechanical ventilation is getting contaminated during operation. The air, passing through the air ducts, contains dust particles, including pathogenic bacteria. To prevent bacteria from multiplying in the ventilation system, bactericidal filters must be used. Halls of Orthodox churches belong to public buildings with a large crowd of people with a long stay. Such premises require a bactericidal efficiency of at least 90%. For the ventilation systems of the church of St. Theophan the Recluse, the authors proposed and implemented a device for bactericidal air treatment using ultraviolet radiation. The bactericidal effectiveness of this device was 92%, which is higher than required. The authors recommend using the proposed device for public buildings.
Keywords: Orthodox church, church buildings, ventilation of religious buildings, bactericidal treatment of air, ultraviolet radiation, air disinfection, bactericidal effectiveness
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of qualitative and quantitative composition of emissions in the production of building materials. This article describes a way of reducing dust emissions of solid substances pollutions exhausted in the atmosphere in the manufacture construction materials. The article focuses on the environmental problems of building construction industry. Volume of production of building materials is growing up and amount of dust particles substances in emissions around 5-8% every year at least both. One of ways to increase the environmental safety is reduction of dust emissions. Data on the relative content of some types of dust, typical for the construction industry in the total dust emissions entering the atmosphere of the city enterprises. The results of studies show that a significant content of fine particles, for example, 10 microns or less is concern in dust emissions systems of aspiration at the building construction enterprises. The great amount mention above of solid substances fine particles dimension involves the usage of special complex integrated analysis method of variance dust. The great amount mention above of solid substances fine particles dimension involves the usage of special complex integrated analysis method of variance dust. The value of the maximum permissible concentration of fine particles content by mention above dimension (around 10 microns) is less than for ordinary powder of building materials’ dusts. There exist and work a lot of building materials enterprises treat with bulk building materials in present time. It isn’t necessary to have ecological project of limitation emissions for small construction companies. So that this reason demands the improvement norms methodology for limitation for fine particles are concern in dust emissions systems of aspiration at the building construction industry. It allows preventing growing pollutions of atmosphere by emissions with fine particles dust.
Keywords: Dust, cement, sand, emissions, environment, system, building industry, analysis of variance, rationing, aspiration