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  • Reviews, suggestions and discussions

  • Modern methods of quality control of work in the construction of multi-storey residential buildings

    The existing methods of quality control of work in construction are considered, the main purpose of their implementation is formulated. A list of the main signs and properties has been determined for which it is recommended to exercise control. The main methods of control in practice are listed on the example of a nine-story residential building. New ways to improve quality control in the production of works are proposed.

    Keywords: control, quality, construction, normative document, defect, damage, tool, BIM, information modeling

  • Overview of municipal solid waste sorting systems

    In recent years, municipal solid waste management in developed countries has been based on the principle of recycling and reusing secondary products. The overseas level of sorting and disposal of waste is higher and more detailed, it refers to a higher economic level, cultural level of quality of life, government investment, appropriate policies and the construction of related auxiliary facilities. This article discusses some of the systems and methods for sorting municipal solid waste in order to justify the need to develop a system for object recognition when sorting waste.

    Keywords: municipal solid waste, waste sorting problems, waste preparation for sorting, technologies for automatic waste sorting

  • On the issue of creating heavy energy objects: in the symbiosis of wildlife, mechanics and artificial intelligence

    This paper considers non-traditional methods for creating an optimal technological process for the manufacture of heavy energy objects using the principles of wildlife. A comparative analysis is carried out between the principle of operation of the developed version of a reloading machine for fuel cells in a nuclear reactor, various options for load-gripping and suspended manipulating devices, and analog processes borrowed from nature. The scheme of manufacturing a heavy energy object is analyzed when considering the chain "mechanics - spider, ant - hoisting-and-transport machines - engineering psychology".

    Keywords: heavy energy objects, mechanics, wildlife, invention

  • Prospects for crossing territories in the area of transport hubs of railway transport

    This article is descriptive, in this scientific article the role of railway transport in the development of territories is determined, an analysis of domestic regulatory and technical literature in the field of pedestrian traffic, regulatory and methodological data in the field of transfer hubs, describes the formation of pedestrian flows to stopping points of railway transport, taking into account the indicators of the external environment, and also describes the method of forming passenger traffic in the city of Moscow at transport hubs of railway transport.

    Keywords: transport, pedestrian traffic, pedestrian flow, transport hubs, railway transport

  • Inspection of bridge structures with the help of modern equipment

    More than 42 thousand bridges on highways are operated in Russia. Most of the bridge park was built in the past years. Bridges are getting old, accumulating destruction and defects and gradually cease to meet the requirements for safety, durability and load capacity imposed on them. It is necessary to spend a lot of effort and money on maintaining a stable working condition of all operated bridges. The use of modern surveillance tools will save financial and time resources. Such means of monitoring and collecting information can be unmanned aerial vehicles: various types and designs of quadrocopters and drones. A quadrocopter inspection of one of the city's overpasses showed high efficiency and quality of the information received. Based on the data obtained, it is possible to judge the technical condition of the object. Of course, the particularly dangerous defects identified during the inspection should subsequently be examined by a specialist to make a final decision. The article presents the photographic materials obtained by the modern method of data collection, the advantages of using quadrocopters in the survey of bridges and the technical characteristics of the equipment.

    Keywords: operation of structures, inspection, bridge structures, quadrocopters, drones, defects, destruction,bridge bed

  • Existing Ways to Formalize Fuzzies in Transport Processes

    The lack of information about the conditions for the implementation of transport processes does not allow building mathematical models that operate with extremely accurate input data. Therefore, methods are being developed that formalize input uncertainties for constructing mathematical models of transport processes. To describe uncertainties, along with static, stochastic and interval approaches, methods based on fuzzy sets are actively used. The generalization of the belonging of the element, presented by Zadeh, allowed blurring the boundaries of the set. The blurring of the boundaries of the sets allows one to formalize insufficiently complete, in an informational sense, judgments and facts for the purpose of the subsequent use of this information in the construction of mathematical models. To identify formal approaches to working with uncertainties, an analysis of foreign periodicals in recent years has been carried out and two well-known approaches have been identified. The first is based on the theory of fuzzy sets - the generalized concept of belonging of an element to a set, leading to blurring of the boundaries of the set. The second approach involves describing fuzziness using a hierarchy - a family of ordered crisp sets [1]. Within the framework of the first approach, the authors have identified five ways of formalization. The first includes fuzzy sets (numbers) with different n-gonal forms of the membership function. The second consists of intuitionistic fuzzy sets (numbers) with n-gonal membership functions. The third contains heterogeneous fuzzy sets of type 2. The fourth represents non-standard fuzzy sets (oscillating, Pythagorean, etc.). The fifth method is a combination of spaced fuzzy numbers, intuitionistic spaced fuzzy numbers, and the like. References are given to sources containing a description of formalization methods and their application in solving some fuzzy transport problems, possible directions of research on the considered topics are formulated.

    Keywords: fuzzy transport routing problem, optimization, fuzzy methods, fuzzy numbers, fuzzy sets, heuristic algorithms, hybrid algorithms, transport processes

  • Physical and mathematical sciences. Physics

  • Membrane separation of helium from natural gas

    This article analyzes the existing methods of obtaining helium at the oil and gas condensate fields of the Russian Federation. The prospects of using membrane technology for obtaining helium from natural gas are considered, based on a comparative assessment of the use of various methods of helium extraction. Taking into account the different permeability of methane and helium, the possibility of using different types of membrane installations for the production of helium is shown. As membrane elements, the greatest effect is obtained from the use of artificial polymer fibers of cellulose acetate, as well as quartz glass. These membrane materials have chemical resistance, including to acid gases that are present in the composition of natural gas, as well as high resistance to temperature amplitudes.

    Keywords: helium, membrane technology, natural gas, gas condensate field, cellulose acetate polymer fibers

  • Technical science. Informatics, computer facilities and management

  • Methods for recognizing named entities in Russian

    This article briefly discusses recurrent neural networks and bidirectional recurrent neural networks. A conditional random field is also described. In particular, we consider the vector representation in the form of the ELMo model, the bidirectional language model and its fine-tuning. A diagram of the architecture of a bidirectional recurrent neural network with CRF is also given.

    Keywords: named entity recognition, neural network, word vector representation, language model, conditional random field, neural network architecture, recurrent neural network, natural language processing, bidirectional recurrent neural network

  • Direct synthesis PID controller design for unstable processes

    This article discusses a proportional-integral-derivative controller circuit for an unstable system with a delay in a parallel control structure. The parallel control structure has two separate controllers for tracking tasks and suppressing load disturbances. The considered controller is developed on the basis of a direct synthesis approach by choosing a separate reference model with feedback. The proposed design method is applicable to both the lower and the high-level unstable process without model reduction in the higher order process. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through example modeling and comparison with methods published in the literature.

    Keywords: proportional-integral-derivative regulator circuit, direct synthesis, reference model, design method

  • Using Euler angles in inertial navigation systems

    This article discusses the features of using Euler angles in the process of determining the position of an object in space. The material presented here will help to study in detail the use of Euler angles when working with inertial navigation sensors and facilitate the understanding of the construction of systems using such devices. Today, such embedded automated systems are used in a wide variety of fields: in aircraft modeling, in medicine, military equipment, and agriculture, and the scale of their use is growing every year. Devices that track the position of the body in space are widely used in such systems as drones, mobile robots, remote-controlled manipulators. These devices can significantly reduce the need for human participation in heavy and dangerous work.

    Keywords: Euler angles, accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, object orientation, inertial navigation sensors, yaw, pitch, roll

  • The Case Based Reasoning Method for Management of City Infrastructure Complex Technological Objects

    The paper considers the implementation of the Case Base Reasoning method when managing a city infrastructure complex technological object. A method of formalizing the situation at a complex technological object using a matrix of states is presented. A method is proposed for determining the proximity of situations in the state space, taking into account the proximity of the states of each element of a complex technological object. The implementation of the proposed method when selecting a situation from the knowledge base allows avoiding collisions when two critically different situations with different solutions are selected.

    Keywords: Case Based Reasoning, CBR, case retrieve, knowledge base, facility management, city infrastructure, Euclidean distance

  • Application of big data in teleophthalmology

    The possibilities of using digital big data sets in the field of telemedicine are presented. The main characteristics of big data are: large volume, high speed of updates, diversity, reliability, variability, value. The types of analytical tasks that can be solved using advanced methods of "big data" analysis are shown. The application of telemedicine technologies in the prevailing conditions of the epidemiological situation is stated. Description of the essence of digital transformation of the healthcare system. Functionality of electronic medical records of patients. Project of a unified state digital healthcare platform. Processing of personal personal data of patients of medical institutions. Machine learning goal sets in academic research, industry, and competitive data analysis. Promising directions of using artificial intelligence technology in the field of medicine. Using teleophthalmology as an example, the modern directions of the industry development are described. Machine learning for big data processing through the practice of an ophthalmologist. Deep Learning - solutions for the analysis of biomedical images. Deep Learning in Fundus Image Recognition. Convolutional neural networks in the diagnosis of diseases of the organs of vision. Preparing high-quality datasets for training algorithms. Advances in pathology recognition on retinal images. The purpose and place of telehothalmology in the work of an ophthalmologist. Interpretability principles for deep machine learning models. The concept of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine. Analyze mobile data at the application level. Existing mobile applications in teleophthalmology. Obstacles to the implementation of computer software in the medicine of eye diseases. Promising areas of research in ophthalmology for technicians.

    Keywords: big data, teleophthalmology, artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning

  • Development and research of a model for comprehensive quality assessment of sports and entertainment complexes

    A model for assessing the consumer attractiveness of commercial real estate objects is described on the example of assessing the quality of sports and entertainment centers in the city of Perm. In the course of the study, a sociological survey was conducted to identify the factors that influence the choice of consumers of a sports and entertainment center to visit. The results of the survey became the information base for the model of assessing the quality and consumer attractiveness of the studied objects. Two approaches to the definition of quality were compared – the mechanism of complex assessment and the qualimetric model.

    Keywords: commercial real estate management, sports and entertainment centers, integrated assessment mechanisms, management efficiency, quality of commercial real estate, consumer attractiveness, probability of choice, decision trees, convolution matrices

  • Simulation of the system of refinancing of commercial banks

    The banking system occupies a dominant position in the modern market economy. The banking system is directly related to risks, one way or another, affecting the entire asset distribution system. The specificity of resource management in a bank requires the synthesis of methods of financial and economic analysis, the use of accounting methods, strategic planning, budgeting. This article describes a two-level mathematical model of interaction between the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and a commercial bank. For the research, the method of simulation was chosen, the algorithm for constructing the Stackelberg equilibrium was implemented in software.

    Keywords: two-level hierarchical model, Stackelberg equilibrium, Central Bank of the Russian Federation, commercial bank, refinancing rate, management parameters, subjects of management

  • Influence of meteorological conditions and traffic flow on the spread of carbon monoxide

    The article discusses the speed and direction of the wind as one of the key factors affecting the spread of carbon monoxide in the linear city of Volgograd. It also investigates the intensity and rolling stock of the traffic flow, which have a negative impact on the pollution of the surface atmospheric layers of the air. Research has been carried out on Raboche-Krestyanskaya street in order to measure the concentration of carbon monoxide on the curb of the roadway.

    Keywords: road transport, wind direction, wind speed, meteorological conditions, sources of pollution, highways, residential buildings, meteorological stations

  • Application of edutainment technology for information security education

    The article examines the concept and scope of edutainment technology. A variant of the application of this technology in teaching students information security issues is proposed. Examples of the implementation of edutainment technology in a number of games covering cybercrime and information security are given.

    Keywords: edutainment-technology, edutainment, information security, teaching, data protection, game

  • Comparative analysis of experimental and calculated data on the stress-strain state of the test pit

    he article provides a comparative analysis of the experimental data obtained as a result of field tests (excavation), with the data of numerical calculations. Mathematical modeling of the experiment was carried out using the Plaxis software package, according to the model of plastically hardening soil. The main task was to compare the obtained data on the decompaction of the soils of the foundation pit with the calculated deformations and analyze the results. The problem was solved in accordance with the experimental data in two settings: in the first case, the variant with inclined slopes of the pit sides was considered; in the second, the problem with vertical slopes was solved. As a result of the calculation, data on the deformations of the soil massif were obtained and analyzed according to the two selected schemes. The best possible convergence of the calculation results with the experimental data was obtained for a pit with inclined slopes, which corresponded to the experimental formulation of the problem. For the case with vertical slopes, the results of deformations of the decompaction of the bottom of the pit turned out to be two times less, which corresponds to the conclusion that the quantitative results of deformation of both the foundation of the pit and its upper side part directly depend on the angle of the slope.

    Keywords: experimental pit, experimental data, numerical calculation, deformations of decompression, pit slopes, calculation results

  • Analysis of functional requirements for the system of basic processing of slope lands: use options

    Intensive use of heavy energy-rich machinery on agricultural land has resulted in a significant overconsolidation of tillable land. It is obvious that overconsolidation of soils is one of the main reasons for reducing crop yields. This is especially evident on slope lands, which are exposed to many additional factors of degradation (deflation, surface washoff, destructuring, sliding of the topsoil to the slope bottom with the formation of swampy areas) resulting in a loss of yield of up to 12-15%. The peculiarities of slope lands place increased demands on the corresponding work technologies. However, existing tillage equipment cannot fully and qualitatively fulfill these demands. In this regard, the search for a rational solution to this problem based on the methodology of conceptual design is an urgent task. The system functioning is influenced by many external factors, such as the forms of organization of economic entities and their respective resource capabilities, the variety of cultivated fields by area, type of soil, crops, profile shape, climatic conditions, ecology, etc. Obviously, under these conditions, the solution to the problem of creating a slope land cultivation system (SLCS) at the modern level lies in the field of new information technologies that implement the idea of the entire life cycle integrity. However, the SLCS system does not exist in isolation. It interacts both with the land user and the cultivated soil. At that, the interaction is limited not only by the soil condition and the slope angle, but also by the profitability level, financial and technological capabilities, as well as environmental safety. In UML, the corresponding semantics are reflected in an additional set of dynamic diagrams. Use options or use case diagrams play a major role in modeling the behavior of a system, a subsystem, or a class. The use case diagram allows not only to formalize the relationship of functional requirements in the form of goals initiated by specific participants in the process of creating a SLCS system by a customer (land user), an ecologist and an economist, but also to develop, on the basis of a compromise and taking into account financial and technological constraints, various use cases that implement the global goal - "Increasing the efficiency of the SLCS functioning".

    Keywords: concept design, deep tiller, universal modeling language, use options, use case diagram

  • Simulating of an optical vector analyzer with high-resolution and high-accuracy based on optical double-sideband modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering

    The article discusses an optical vector analyzer with high resolution and high accuracy based on optical double-sideband modulation and stimulated Brillouin scattering. A model of an optical vector analyzer is presented.

    Keywords: optical vector analyzer, double-sideband modulation, stimulated Brillouin scattering, fiber Bragg grating with phase shift, simulation, Optisystem

  • Possibility of constructing multivariate models of electrical capacity of magnetic nanofluid microlayers

    Methods of mathematical modeling of complex systems are considered. To construct mathematical models of changes in the electrical capacity of microlayers of magnetic nanofluids, the universal statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics was reasonably adopted. To optimize the construction of models, a database of the electric capacity of a cell with a microlayer of magnetic nanofluid and a program for generating a calculated model of the electric capacity of a capacitor with a magnetic nanofluid for IBM SPSS Statistics and Microsoft Excel were developed.

    Keywords: magnetic nanofluid, concentration, microlayer, polarization, electric field, mathematical model, regression model

  • Revealing local features of the electroencephalograph signal using an artificial neural network

    The article discusses the use of algorithms based on artificial neural networks when working with non-stationary signals, in particular biomedical ones, such as an electroencephalograph signal, to identify and process local signal features. The use of conventional patch electrodes for EEG recording leads to the appearance of noise and requires special signal processing. For this, bandpass wavelet filtering is used. The obtained data are further processed using an artificial neural network to identify information contained in a limited interval in the biomedical signal. To train the neural network, the Levenberg-Marquardt method was used, as the optimal one and meeting the requirements.

    Keywords: artificial neural network, electroencephalography, wavelet filtration, biomedicine, non-stationary signal, system analysis

  • Cellular automaton modeling of gas emission kinetics in a finite volume of coal

    The paper is devoted to cellular automaton modeling based on the class of cellular automata with the Margolus neighborhood. A simulation of the kinetics of gas emission in the final volume of coal, including: convection, diffusion, sorption, is performed. To organize this kind of evolutionary process, the cell-automaton modeling method was supplemented with the Monte Carlo method.

    Keywords: cellular automaton, Margolus neighborhood, Monte Carlo method, diffusion, convection, sorption, porous medium, coal