In the course of the system analysis of scientific and technical information, including patents, it has been established that currently the forestry sector is actively patenting technical and technological solutions for basic operations, but not enough attention is paid to building knowledge bases in the field of technologies and equipment for non-timber forest resources. The formation of databases in this area is caused by identified trends in product development from various types of natural raw materials for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic industry and other areas of the social sphere and economy. Among the types of natural raw materials, an important place is occupied by raw materials with a wide range of biological effects, including chaga birch fungus. The development of the knowledge base in the field of engaging chaga in various spheres of the social sphere and economy is based on system analysis and patent search.
Keywords: knowledge base, birch mushroom, intellectual property, forest complex, non-timber forest resources, patent, intellectual property, chaga
the necessity of accelerated development of competitive in the Russian and foreign markets of domestic machines and equipment for the prevention and suppression of forest fires is shown. The system analysis of technologies, machines and equipment for prevention and suppression of forest fires is carried out on the basis of the extended patent information search. Special attention is paid to technologies, machines and equipment that provide cutting of trees and bushes in the continuous movement of basic forest tractors. The knowledge base in the field of technologies, machines and equipment for removal of trees and bushes is formed. It is suggested that the prospects of their use in the systems of machines for the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The equipment of such machines can be included in the set of multifunctional equipment for a forest tractor. The technological and technical solutions developed by the authors for the variants of technologies of cutting trees and bushes with the continuous movement of basic forest tractors, machines and elements of their structures for such technologies are presented
Keywords: knowledge base, tree and shrub vegetation, forest fires, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
To form a knowledge base, a systematic analysis of patentable technologies and equipment for handling spent nuclear fuel was carried out. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases were formed regarding the technology and equipment objects being improved or replaced, taking into account their role in the end-to-end technologies and related operations of these processes. The research results showed the effectiveness of the formation of a knowledge base and its use for the synthesis of new intellectual property. As a result of the work done, new technical solutions were found regarding the design of containers for transporting and storing spent nuclear fuel from nodular cast iron. The significance of the solutions found is confirmed by obtaining patents for invention in their respect.
Keywords: spent nuclear fuel, patent, transportation and storage, transport and packaging containers
An analysis of the use of modern technologies based on the use of physical phenomena, namely, vacuum and microwave effects in the dehydration of food products, is given. On the basis of generalization and analysis of studies of domestic and foreign scientists it was shown that these technologies are promising for such plant raw materials as fruits and vegetables, and their effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the raw materials being enriched
Keywords: vacuum, microwave exposure, dehydration of food, drying
A system analysis of technologies and equipment for logging work was carried out in order to synthesize new solutions. It is based on the original functional and technological analysis of objects of logging technologies and equipment, worked out on a number of basic operations of timber industry. In the analysis, intellectual knowledge bases are being formed on technologies and equipment that are being improved or replaced, their role in the end-to-end technologies of timber production and related operations of these processes is taken into account. It is shown that it is advisable to harvest industrial wood with harvesters and forwarders during their cyclical work, to conduct forestry operations, to prevent and extinguish forest fires during the continuous movement of forest machines. As a result of the analysis, technical solutions were found for the technology of work and the structural elements of the multifunctional forest machine protected by patents.
Keywords: knowledge bases, logging work, methodology, multifunctional forest machine, system analysis
when analyzing container designs for transportation and storage of spent nuclear fuel, a tendency is revealed to improve them using the innovative potential of modern achievements in science and technology. The modernized design of the container is proposed, which includes a molded body with an internal volume under the cover. In the wall of the case, a neutron-protective barrier is poured from the material with a melting point higher than the melting point of the shell material and a thermal conductivity coefficient not less than that of the cast housing material. The barrier prevents the free passage of neutrons in the radial directions
Keywords: nuclear energy, container, spent nuclear fuel, transportation and storage
The use of low-temperature plasma in industry and the social sphere is given serious attention in Russia and abroad. Plasma technologies are environmentally friendly and allow solving the problems of resource saving and energy saving. The article is devoted to the search for directions for using low-temperature plasma and the creation of appropriate technologies and equipment in industry and the social sphere. Based on the analysis of scientific, technical and patent information, the opinion was expressed that the potential of low-temperature plasmas in forestry and in the timber industry is underestimated
Keywords: Low-temperature plasma, industrial and social applications, forest seeds, pre-sowing treatment
The estimation of intensity of patenting of results of intellectual activity by a scientific group is offered in the article. An example of its calculation is given following the analysis of Petrozavodsk State University data
Keywords: index of intensity of patenting, research group, university, h-index, RSCI
the development of a network of logging roads and increasing the efficiency of its functioning is the most important factor in increasing the economic accessibility of forest resources and intensifying forest management in the regions of the European North of Russia. Substantial development of the network of forest roads is necessary to increase the availability of forests for continuous and selective cutting, thinning, reforestation. It is also necessary to improve the efficiency of the operation of logging road trains while exporting forests, to increase the degree of development of the allowable cutting area, to increase the level of forest fire safety of forests, and to prevent and extinguish forest fires.
Keywords: availability of forest resources, logging roads, timber road truck, local stone materials, road construction
The developed calculation dependencies for determining the log truck movement indicators during non-steady and steady motion in different modes make it possible to solve technical-economic tasks with adequate accuracy and certainty during planning and optimization of wood transportation. During two-stage timber hauling a log truck based on MAZ-6312B9 has advantages in exploitation and technical-economic indicators in comparison with a log truck based on Scania R-420. There are opportunities for a rapid increase of passing ability of a log truck while using an active trailer. This provides the work of a complete log truck on a forest road, and also there is a possibility to eliminate two-stage timber hauling, with rise of efficiency and technical-economic indicators
Keywords: wood transport, optimization, log trucks, motion simulation, efficiency
One of the problems with exploitation of log trucks is damage to equipment during the process of transportation of wood material and during loading-unloading operations. The authors of the paper suggest equipping a log truck with an innovative protective butting device in order to increase reliability and work efficiency of the hydraulic manipulator. This device will allow aligning the sawn wood ends of wood products, and thus it will allow excluding a chance of protruding of sawn wood ends at an inadmissible scale which prevents forming a neighboring pack of wood products. The device will also allow excluding mechanical damages of a hydraulic manipulator by sawn wood ends of wood products being laid on a load platform. This will increase its reliability and will reduce the expenses on repair works.
Keywords: log truck, hydraulic manipulator, modernization, reliability, safety
Reflects the results of work aimed at finding new Technical solutions to reduce power consumption in crushing lumpy rocks in the jaw crusher. Main technical solutions for advancement the jaw crushers are presented in the form of Intellectual matrix of evelopment. The ways of improvement construction jaw crushers in order to increase process efficiency crushing
Keywords: rock, crushing, matrix of development, patent, jaw crusher
The paper describes and analyzes the main development trends of Russian forestry machine-building in modern conditions. Russian forestry machine-building enterprises do not use presently available perspectives in import substitution in connection with the depreciation of the rouble. Neither do they use the opportunities for producing integrated multifunctional machines. Development and production release of forestry machines for assortment harvesting based on Russian-manufactured tractors fitted with technological equipment of foreign manufacture is the first step on the way of creating domestic vehicles of analogous purpose. These machines will be fully complete with home-produced technological equipment. This will allow reducing the costs on the production of these machines and on their timber-harvesting operations
Keywords: forest harvesting technology, felling, limbing, cutting into lengths, skidding, forestry machine-building, development
The article presents the results of analyzing patents, aimed at improving the design of jaw crushers and crushing processes using them,conducted in order to establish the technical level of their development.
Keywords: rock, objective tree, crushing, patent, jaw crusher
The article describes the construction of a modern forest inventory instrument for forest inventory operations, that is a calipers and an increment borer, combined in one body. The described construction provides combination of two operations, which are determination of diameter of a tree trunk and core sampling .
Keywords: borer, forest instrument, calipers, forest inventory