In the paper, a rectangular plate, reinforced by ribs in two mutually perpendicular directions. The plate rests on an elastic Foundation and loaded by a distributed load following the law q=q_0*sin〖2πx/a*cos〖πy/2b〗 〗. The problem is solved by the inverse method. Function of deflections of the plate are: w=C*sin〖2πx/a*cos〖πy/2b〗 〗.The settlement scheme was adopted of simply supported orthotropic plate on an elastic Winklevosses basis. Examines the stress state and calculation of carrying capacity for different parameters and base plates. The calculations showed that the capacity of the wavy plate is higher compared with the load capacity of the flat plate.
Keywords: diversification of management, production diversification, financial and economic purposes of a diversification, technological purposes of ensuring flexibility of production
We investigated the efficiency of the storage device based on the piezoelectric generator (PEG) in the form bimorph, which is a circular plate with inertial mass; the active material is a PMN-0,33PT relaxor. The plate is fixed along the contour in the body of the device, which performs vertical harmonic oscillations with a given amplitude and frequency. Our studies based on finite element modeling and numerical calculation in the ANSYS package. A notable feature of relaxors is a significant dependence of their properties on temperature, so in this paper, we studied the relation on operating temperature and the magnitude of the active load of the resonant frequencies, output voltages and electric power of the device with oscillations at these frequencies. Based on performed calculations we have established the values of the active resistances of the external electric circuit for different temperature ranges at which the device is most effective.
Keywords: energy storage, relaxor ferroelectric, PEG
The paper presents a developed mathematical model for analyzing the dynamics of thermal losses. The influence of the massiveness of the enclosing structures on the propagation of the heat flux is substantiated. The developed model makes it possible to estimate how the heat load of the heating system of the room under consideration changes over time. Analysis of the dynamics of the change in the heat load can help in choosing a method for regulating the heat transfer of heating devices
Keywords: Dynamics of heat losses, constructions of different massiveness, control range, thermal load, amplitude of oscillation
The method of calculating the heat flow to the ionospheric electrons from photoelectrons resulting from ionization of the neutral atmospheric components by solar radiation in region E of the ionosphere of the Earth is considered . Examples of the calculation of the spectra of photoelectrons and the rate of heat influx to the electron gas at an altitude of 130 km, depending on solar Zenith angle.
Keywords: solar radiation spectra of photoelectrons, the zenith angle of the sun, the collision of electrons, the ionization potential, secondary ionization, effective absorption cross section
Based on our own, as well as literary experimental data, the analysis of the Influence of a barrier material used to create heterogeneous composites based on La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 on their magnetoresistive properties is carried out. Such composites differ in existence of an isotropic negative magnitorezistivnost (MR) connected from backs - dependent tunneling of carriers in magnetic field. The largest value MR up to 15% in the field of 15 kOe are shown when using glass-like GeO2 oxide at a percolation ratio of components.
Keywords: lanthanum strontium manganite, composite material, ceramics, one-step synthesis, magnetoresistance, percolation threshold, dielectric constant, barrier layer, tunneling, spin polarization
Stages of receiving samples of high-austenitic powder steel 110G13P a method of dynamic hot pressing are presented. Processes of formation of structure and properties of steklosoderzhashchy powder steel 110G13P are considered. Significant positive effect on formation of structure of powder steel 110G13P with application glass components is defined.
Keywords: high-austenitic powder steel, method of dynamic hot pressing, agglomeration, mechanical activation of furnace charge, oxidic films
In recent years, the most widely used semiconductor oxide-tantalum capacitors in high frequency circuits acquired, which causes the need to reduce resistance of the contact and the semiconductor layers. One solution to this problem and at the same time, promising way of improving solid-state tantalum capacitors is to modify process technology for applying the semiconductor layer and heat treatment resistive coating of colloidal graphite. Contact carbon layer according to conventional technology is applied by impregnating the tantalum capacitor sections in an aqueous suspension of colloidal graphite (usually imported), and then produce exposure to air and heat treatment at an elevated temperature. This article presents the results of studies of the effect of conditions of application of the contact layer of colloidal graphite on the electrical characteristics of sections of tantalum oxide-semiconductor capacitor, in particular in the equivalent series resistance, the technique of applying aquadag. Described in detail the design of solid-state tantalum capacitor, the role of the contact carbon layer and its contribution to the ESR of the capacitor.
Keywords: oxide-semiconductor capacitors, colloidal graphite, resistance of the capacitor, the cathode coating, suspension, immittance, aquadag
Numerical solution of the problem of heat transfer in the boundary layers of transparent gas wall, exposed on the opposite side of radiant-convective heating. The energy dissipation due to viscosity is negligible, the wall is thermally thin, and the physical properties of the medium do not depend on temperature. The aim of this work - finding the local heat transfer coefficients (Nusselt number) needed for the analysis of heat exchangers. When solving the problem of nonlinear transfer functions linearizing method is used, based on which numerical scheme for computer calculations was constructed. The intensity of the local heat transfer in the boundary layer is determined by the number Kx = Nux / Nux0, where the value Nusselt numbers refer to the conditions under consideration of the problem of heat exchange (Nux) and constant surface temperature (Nux0). From a physical point of view, non-dimensional parameter Kx is a measure of the intensity of heat transfer in the boundary layer on a nonisothermal surface compared to heat transfer when the wall temperature everywhere the same. The analysis of this research showed that in radiative-convective heating number Kx on the front edge of the plate takes the largest value of Kx ≈ 1,37 corresponding to a constant heat flux on the wall. It is also shown that the relative temperature of the incoming flow has a significant impact on the value of Kx. The effect of this setting is especially evident in the processes when dominated by the effect of radiation and related to the nonlinearity of the transfer processes. The analysis revealed the influence of basic parameters of heat transfer on the development of transport processes in the boundary layer by heating radiation and convection simultaneously.
Keywords: Boundary layer, convection, radiation, radiation-convection heating, high temperature gas invironment, linearizing function
Methods for conducting polarization measurements on electrodes made of 1X18H9T steel are considered. Anodic polarization curves of steel 1X18H9T were obtained in solutions of electrolytes without stirring and with stirring. Comparison of the obtained anodic polarization curves allowed to reveal the rational current densities for realization of technological processes of combined anodic and mechanical processing of this steel.
Keywords: polarization curves, electrolytes, 1X18H9T steel, combined treatment
The work is devoted to research of influence of laser visual stimuli on the functional activity of man. The analysis of changes in the tempo of psychomotor activities in promoting human dynamic images of laser graphics. Stress is a state of severe and prolonged psychological stress, which occurs in a person when his nervous system gets emotional overload. Stress is an integral and constant companion of our life because the phenomenon of stress is inherent in every organism. The main objective is the minimization reasons, namely the negative impact of stress on the psychophysiology of the person, and therefore his health and functional activity, and the consequence - the effectiveness of his work, and therefore factors as personal performance of the employee and of the organization as a whole. Alternative to conventional drug and non-drug methods of preventing and dealing with stress, is audio-visual stimulation, which is based on the fact that music and color can have a strong influence on the brain.
Keywords: psychophysiology of visual perception, light therapy, sound therapy, non-drug therapies, stress, health, medicine, optics, lasers, colors, lighting design, sound design
A manganese-vanadium concentrate precipitate containing V2O5 and MnO2 is formed on the stage of wastewater ozone treatment in sodium technology of vanadium-containing converter metallurgical slag processing. Vanadium content of the slag changes between 4 and 15 % wt and manganese content changes between 62 and 75,5 % wt. The article examines influence of concentrate with 14,33 % wt V2O5 and 65,44 MnO2 % addition in slag-with-soda furnace feed to determine positive effect on the result of roasting. Vanadium content of the slag is 22,34 % wt expressed as V2O5. Roasting temperature is 850 °C, Na2O/V2O5 molar ratio is 0,5:1, the concentrate is added as 0,25; 0,5; 1,0 mass ratio on the content of soda in starting furnace feed. Degree of vanadium conversion in water- and acid-soluble compounds is increased. The most effect is provided on the process of interaction between vanadium oxides and spinels with sodium compounds with formation of water-soluble vanadium forms. The optimal addition of concentrate is 0,25-0,5 mass ratio on the content of soda. Increasing of concentrate content is not effective. Both manganese and vanadium contained in concentrate give positive effect. Concentrate addition can be recommended for existing industry regardless of type of alkali addition on the stage of roasting.
Keywords: vanadium-containing slag, oxidating roasting with sodium, manganese-vanadium concentrate, increasing of vanadium yield, soluble compounds of vanadium and manganese
The article discusses the methodology of assessing the technical condition of the regenerative air heater RVP-54 on power boilers Naberezhnye Chelny CHP on the basis of the results of the monitoring of the thermal efficiency. In article the algorithm of monitoring and evaluation of the thermal efficiency of regenerative air heater, allows in real time to compare actual performance with previous values and to eliminate the revealed violations.
Keywords: Naberezhnye Chelny CHP, energy boiler, regenerative air heater RVP-54, technical condition assessment, commissioning and configuration, thermal calculation, temperature difference, heating surface, thermal efficiency, heat losses
In the present work, a study was made of the properties of a photocatalyst-adsorbent based on metal oxide, which was titanium dioxide (TiO2). The photodegradation activity of two organic dyes under the action of light was analyzed. The effect of the phase composition of the photocatalyst was compared on the example of three modifications of TiO2 - rutile, anatase and their mixture.
Keywords: TiO2, photocatalysis, metal oxide, dyes
The possibilities of theoretical and experimental methods for determining the rheological characteristics of technical fluids are explored. A comparative evaluation of rotational and gyroscopic viscometers was carried out. The phenomenon of slippage of layers of non-Newtonian fluid at the surface of measuring cylinders is revealed with increasing gradients of shear rates and filler content.
Keywords: Technical fluids, non-Newtonian environment, rheology, viscometer, rheological model, automotive engineering
The methods for determining the standards for the preventive maintenance system and repair are analyzed, it is found that the current norms are essentially outdated and require revision at the federal level. It is shown that the specifications for maintenance and repair specified by the operating time for modern cars should be revised in favor of standards determined by their condition, which will allow the introduction of individual standards for each car, taking into account the operating conditions and its technical condition.
Keywords: Strategy, method, standard, parameter, maintenance, repair, maintainability, mileage, reliability, operation
The article is devoted to the development of metrological assurance in the field of experience based on solving optimization problems with the involvement of simulation and statistical models. This technique will improve the accuracy of decisions and reduce the time of development of technology. It is important to establish a system of views on the organization of metrological support of field experience on the basis of a system approach, taking into account the relationship and interaction of the various elements and processes of metrological assurance. The article describes an example of measurement processing of a multifactorial field experiment with application of simulation models, produced on the basis of the identification of correlations, tightness and shape which describe the regression equation or the correlation equation, which allows to obtain accurate solutions.
Keywords: field experience, observation, and optimization technologies, simulation model, regression, correlation, correlation coefficient
We propose a probabilistic and statistical method of estimating parameters of the traction units, which is the creation of acceptable modes of operation taking into account the probabilistic nature of the load, the probability ratios, and other factors that act continuously and systematically change operational characteristics of machine-tractor units. Presents the graphical dependence of the speed of the shaft of the engine SMD-62 degree load and the coefficient of its variation.
Keywords: mathematical expectation, function of communication, frequency of rotation of the motor shaft, the coefficient of variation, the degree of load probability ratio
Hidden defects of the wood can significantly affect for its physical properties and the customs value. For the identification of the hidden defects of the wood currently uses any organoleptic and ultrasonic techniques, which are not always effective for detecting of early forms of fungal damage of the wood. The authors proposed a new method of detecting hidden defects of the wood through UV radiation. To implement the method proposed to use a spectral luminescent magnifier "Regula 4177" with the device PPI "Kedr-M". The study of 128 wood samples showed a rather high efficiency of the proposed method. Were identified features of the luminescence of several types of fungal infections in ultraviolet radiation. The proposed technique can be used to identify hidden defects in the wood at the industry and at the customs control.
Keywords: Hidden defects of wood; ultraviolet radiation, devices, methods of control, identification, customs control
The result of the application of the statistical quality control and monitoring instrumentation on PJSC Beriev Aircraft Company is described in this article. The analysis of the existing tools of control and management quality in relation to features of technological process of production pipeline systems on which fuel, air oxygen, liquid chemicals on planes therefore the tool kit for increase quality control at the studied enterprise carried out. The developed control leaf for fast and convenient data collection is described, Pareto's chart is constructed, ABC analysis, for the purpose of identification of the special reasons of discrepancies is carried out, the control chart is used to definition of stability process. The program of correcting actions is developed by means of the chart Isikava, in order to eliminate all revealed discrepancies. Introduction of the offered tools in production of systems of pipelines on PJSC Beriev Aircraft Company has provided continuous improvement of quality of products, has certified compliance of these types of systems of pipelines to requirements standards.
Keywords: statistical analysis, quality control, technological process
A home-made heating accessory for UV-Vis cells was developed and tested in both DLS and UV-Vis in-situ measurements. The device is designed to be placed in a measurement chamber of the two-beam spectrophotometer (SHIMADZU UV-2600). It is made of aluminum, and contains four ceramic resistors for the simultaneous uniform heating of two standard UV-Vis cells. The outer thermal emittance is minimized by a wooden thermo-insulating shield. The accessory is painted matte black to minimize beam dispersion of the spectrophotometer. DC power supply allows to maintain temperature of the UV-Vis cells in the interval from 30 to 120 °C. The optical probe of the DLS can be immersed into heated liquid sample in a standard UV-Vis cell. The reaction of the formation of gold nanoparticles in heating accessory was in-situ monitored by simultaneous measurements with SHIMADZU UV-2600 and Microtrac Nano-flex particle size analyzer as an example.
Keywords: Heating cell, DLS, Uv-vis, in-situ analysis,gold nanoparticles
The optical-acoustic effect, which leads to the excitation of acoustic waves upon absorption of a variable light flux, is considered. A model is proposed for calculating the acoustic field generated by a laser study in a liquid when it hits a spherical object in savagery. Spherical objects can serve as special nanomaterials added to the liquid. The results of an experiment on the excitation of an optoacoustic signal in a liquid by means of a laser for laser flow diagnostics are presented. Since the laser beam is characterized by a set of parameters: power, polarization, wavelength, frequency, phase and direction of propagation, then by changing these parameters one can judge the processes occurring in the investigated stream.
Keywords: optoacoustics, nanofibres, optoacoustic waves, biofluids, virtual instrument, signal spectrum, spherical reflectors
The problem of selection of diagnostic signs is solved by methods of statistical, spectral and entroic processing of signals and the logical analysis of their results. Results of data processing allowed to choose the most efficient characteristics (diagnostic signs) of signals providing separability of signals in the chosen priznakovy space i.e. classification. The problem of algorithmization of diagnostics of electrodrive fittings (further EPA) is solved as a problem of a pattern recognition of five classes of a condition of EPA on the basis of comparison of the current Boolean combinations to seven standards.
Keywords: electrodrive fittings, spectral analysis, entropy of Shannon, permutation entropy, basic vector, pattern recognition
This article describes the current development of multi-sensor systems "electronic nose". The basis of portable multi-sensor systems "electronic nose" is a gas sensing unit, composed of solid-state gas sensors. The types of sensors. Set out the main research directions of the authors.
Keywords: quantitative analysis, chemical sensor, the hardware-software complex, solid-state gas sensor, gas sensing unit, electronic nose, hall-sensor, optical chemical sensor, multi-touch system