The article examines not only the issues of ensuring mutual understanding and interaction of subjects of innovative engineering, but also the need for creative development of their consciousness. Attention is paid to the increasingly popular in the invention, in the technological business and innovative engineering of critical thinking and the possibilities of its constructive use. In the final article, the authors derive an algorithm for searching for creative solutions.
Keywords: dogmatism, criticism, creativity, constructivism, search for creative solutions
In the paper, we give a brief overview of the main developments made personally and under the direct supervision of the professor, academician RANS andIAELPS P. Kudryavtsev. These developments are devoted to the use of sol-gel processes in various branches of science and technology. Using this process, new composite heat-resistant materials, highly disperse materials and thin filmswere created. These developments have made it possible to create new efficient catalysts and highly selective inorganic ion-exchange materials. Based on inorganic ion-exchange materials, a technology was developed to extract lithium from natural brines, which are poor in lithium content. On the basis of sol-gel technology, new composite matrix-isolated flocculants-coagulants were created. These reagents are designed for the treatment of natural and wastewater in order to remove impurities of oil products and heavy metals.
Keywords: Nanomaterials, Sol-Gel Technology, Nanostructured Materials, Composite Materials, Highly Dispersed Materials, Thin Films, Catalysts, Highly Selective Inorganic Ion Exchangers, Extraction of Lithium, Composite Flocculants-Coagulants
The processes of extraction and processing of oil and oil products are accompanied by negative consequences at the level of the environment in the form of accidents. They act both on the water area and on land. This article is devoted to the liquidation of emergency oil and oil products spills with the help of natural sorbents. For the analysis, three readily available materials were taken in the national economy of the Russian Federation: wool, wheat straw and sawdust. The main indicative value for the sorbent is its oil capacity (sorption capacity) the amount of absorbed oil, which depends on the degree of specific surface of the material. The higher the specific surface area, the higher the sorption capacity. To determine the oil capacity, each of the materials was placed on a flat surface and artificially contaminated with oil for one hour. During the experiment, the absorbent capacity of the sorbents was determined, which for each proved to be different. Based on the data, graphs are constructed that clearly show the applicability of a material.
Keywords: Oil, oil products, extraction, oil consumption, material, sorbent, absorption, adsorption, accident, liquidation
The paper considers methods of taking into account the energy dependence of the effective mass of hot carriers in the volume of semiconductors of the AIIIBV type for three different cases of dispersion. The classical deviation of the dispersion from the quadratic law, the Kane deviation of the dispersion from the quadratic law and the dependence m (W), connected with the two-valley representation of semiconductors of the AIIIBV type, are analyzed. Energy dependences of the normalized effective mass for the main valley, lateral valley, and total energy are calculated, taking into account the intervalley transition and also the energy dependences of the normalized effective mass calculated by the equations. An estimation of the effect of an external electric field on the average carrier energy taking into account different dispersion mechanisms is made.
Keywords: dispersion characteristic, effective mass, quadratic law, Keynes deviation of dispersion, effect of "weighting" of electrons, energy dependencies, heating effects
The main maintenance of a diversification of production as activity of subjects of managing is considered. being shown in purchase of the operating enterprises, theIn this work, we carried out computer simulations of the equilibrium polarization in the ferroelectric noise within the two-dimensional model Ishibashi in the case of deposits and intra-parietal areas. We considered different configurations influence of thermal noise. The analysis revealed flicker noise in the simulated time dependence of the current strength.
Keywords: simulation, polarization current, domain walls, the noise, Ishibashi model, intra-region, parietal region
The existing and promising methods of drying of coatings from organic solvents presented. The important role of the temperature of the drying kinetics, which determines the rate of chemical and rheological processes. Shown the crucial role of design and technology solutions. The main problem of experimental research, calculation and simulation, energy resource and environment in the development of processes and equipment for the evaporation of solvents and coating treatment is determined.
Keywords: kinetics, drying, solvent, mode, experiment, modeling, coating
Piezoceramic frames made of PKP-12 material with porosity up to 50% are made. The effect of the total, open and closed porosity on the properties of porous piezoelements on a given piezoelectric material is studied. Hydrostatic tests of porous piezoelements have been performed to determine the pressure at which irreversible changes occur.
Keywords: piezoceramics, PKP-12, piezocomposites, porous piezoceramics, piezoelectric materials, ferroelectrics, PZT, hydroacoustics, hydrophone
The aim of the paper is to investigate the interaction of two such pulses when they propagate through the sample. The urgency of few-cycle pulses study is associated with a large number of possible practical applications in various fields of science and technology (from medicine to the study of ultrafast processes). The modeling of the electromagnetic field evolution based on the Maxwell`s equations supplemented by an equation determining the behavior of the electric current in the system. Electrons were described in the long-wave effective Hamiltonian in the case of low temperatures. As a result of the study, the dependence of the shape of the few-cycle optical pulse on its initial velocity and initial amplitude was revealed. When a pair of few-cycle optical pulses interacts in the film of a topological insulator, several new pulses are formed. After a collision, they begin to propagate fairly stable with conservation of the acquired amplitudes. The effect, associated with the steady spread of pulses after the collision, may be useful in the development of hybrid devices based on the effect of light interaction with electrons of the topological insulator.
Keywords: few-cycle pulses, topological insulator, collision
In the Landau theory of phase transitions taking into account thermal fluctuations of the computer modeling of ferroelectric polarization noise. Based on the spectral analysis, thermal and polarization noise are investigated. The presence of 1 / f noise in the polarization spectrum is detected.
Keywords: ferroelectric, modeling, polarization noise, thermal noise, Fourier transform.
The new polarization integrated-optic scheme based on weak-guided waveguide in glass is proposed - the passive 90-degree convertor of linear polarization. The converter has the evoulution type of it working principle. Converter consists of four-layer waveguide, which includes ion-exchange waveguide in glass with high-index cladding film, having tapered thickness or (in another variant of converter) tapered width. The working principle of converter has been explained with mode analysis techniques. The calculations showed that in the small range of thickness (or width) of nano-scaled cladding film the second and third waveguide modes have nearly equal effective indices and hybrid structure of fields, and out of this range the same modes have the field structure of modes TM0 and TE1. The smooth (adiabatic) increase of waveguide cladding film thickness (or width) along it longitudional geometric axis means that such waveguide is a polarization converter, which transforms mode TM0 to mode TE1.
Keywords: Integrated optics, polarization converter, optical waveguide, guided-wave mode
To produce controlled radio frequency and microwave devices such as phased antenna arrays, delay lines, an affordable and inexpensive way of manufacturing varactors in large quantities should be found. One of the promising ways to produce such varactors is based on the use of a BST-paste with a low firing temperature, which allows it to be integrated into a substrate of low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC).
Keywords: semiconductor, ferroelectric, BST-paste, ferroelectric condenser, LTCC technology
Possible methods of high-speed control of the output characteristics of recombination He-Sr and He-Ca lasers using mathematical models are analyzed. The capability is demonstrated of wide-range control of laser output characteristics with the help of two methods – by varying the amplitude of the additional current pulse imposed on early afterglow of the pulse-periodic discharge and by varying the moment of this pulse imposing. The dependences of the laser output characteristics on the parameters of the additional current pulses are numerically calculated. The mechanism of their influence on the population of laser levels is established. The results obtained make it possible to purposefully form control current pulses for the recombination metal vapor lasers.
Keywords: recombination metal vapor laser, He-Sr-laser, He-Ca laser, gas-discharge plasma, fast controlling, mathematical modeling
The investigation provides the complex approach for optical properties study of the cobalt octaephylporphyrin. The complex shows the magnetic moment of the central ions. The strength and sign of anisotropy and optical transparency within the visible range can be changed by variation of an environment of the central metal atom (the ligand field) or its replacement. As a result, these materials can be used as stable qubits and nanoelements for spintronics and quantum computing. It is well-known that devices for spintronics and quantum computing require materials with femtosecond time resolution. The insights into the relations between geometry structure and optical and magnetic properties allow to design the tailor-made materials. In this work, we have investigated the optical properties of the cobalt octaephylporphyrin. We have calculated the theoretical spectra of the extinction coefficient, refraction index, and absorption index. These spectra provide us the additional information about optical transitions within the visible range. The design of the stable nanoelements with femtosecond time resolution is hardly-probable without understanding the nature of processes.
Keywords: Molecular magnets, cobalt octaethylporphyrines, optical properties, dielectric function, femtosecond time resolution
The article considers the way of organizing the process of material drying from organic solvents. The typical kinetic curves, observed in the evaporation of solvents. Given received and the recommended equations for calculating the evaporation intensity and the surface temperature of the evaporation in the first period. The analysis of major scientific and technological problems arising in the implementation of new drying technologies.
Keywords: modeling, calculation, drying, solvent, kinetics, evaporation, energy saving
We described the technology of obtaining low pour point, winter and arctic diesel fuels from petroleum raw and found the way to realize it in Russian Federation. Was described the state of manufacture and quality requirements. We showed that synthetic motor fuels obtained from natural gases with GTL technology are perspective replacement for petroleum fuels. Using reference and patent data's, technology of the conversion Fischer - Tropsch products into synthetic diesel fuels with low Cloud point was reviewed. This technology applied on single-reactor process.
Keywords: diesel fuel, winter and arctic diesel, oil, natural gas, GtL technology, Fischer – Tropsch synthesis, products, conversion
The parameters of the porous structure and the active surface of cobalt catalysts for the synthesis of liquid and solid hydrocarbons (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) prepared by the method of impregnating a silicate carrier were studied. The effect of additives of oxide promoters on the specific surface, the volume and size of pores, the dispersion and size of crystallites of metallic cobalt on the surface of the Co / SiO2 catalyst was studied.
Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, motor fuel, synthetic hydrocarbons, catalyst, promoter, carrier, specific surface, porous structure, catalytic activity, selectivity
A new class of materials is proposed that change their dielectric permittivity as a function of the magnetic field strength. Such materials are two-phase composites of composition La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 / I, where I is the isolating phase, Li4P2O7 or GeO2. The ratio of components is close to the percolation threshold: from 10% to 20% by weight. Dielectric properties have been studied in the frequency range of the measuring field from 1 kHz to 1 MHz in magnetic fields from 0 to 15 kOe. Samples have an inductive impedance, their permittivity is negative. In a magnetic field, the permittivity increases in absolute value and at room temperature the values of the magnetodielectric coefficient reach 28%.
Keywords: lanthanum strontium manganite, composite material, ceramics, one-step synthesis, magnetoresistance, percolation threshold, dielectric constant, barrier layer, tunneling, spin polarization
In this paper the method of electrochemical oxidation/dispersion of zinc using pulse alternating current with average density of 0.2:1.2 A/cm2 was used. The mixture of ZnO and Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O (simonkolleite) was obtained. The application of this product as a photocatalyst provides a practically full removal of methylene blue dye under UV light. When the sample is calcined at 400 °С the decomposition of simonkolleite with a ZnO formation occurs. It is accompanied by decrease in surface area and photocatalytic activity of the material.
Keywords: zinc oxide, nanoparticle, simonkolleite, pulse alternating current, morphology, photocatalysis, methylene blue
New highly-porous film materials were created based on NA-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, modifyed by particles of AlOOH. Forming of covers happen as a result of relatively not high temperatures (for about 55 degrees of centigrades). A regression model was suggested which described interrelation between sizes of forming porouses in the film cover with its composition. The ability was shown to manage physical specification of the cover which named surface porosity by changing containing of AlOOH in the composition. It was shown up that porouses were formed sizes between 300 mircometers and 2500 mircometers in proccess of curing of the cover while containing of boehmite in the composition. It was discovered that the general surface porosity was 65%, and the depth of cover was 600 mircometers. The ability was shown to create covers with sliding properties as exemplified in closing of pores by solid lubrication MoS2. It was discovered that it was observable down drag by 30-50% in response to application of covers on steel faces adding down of frictional force.
Keywords: Porosity, NA-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, AlOOH, ntifriction material, MoS2, friction
Numerical physical-topological modeling is carried out to optimize the thickness of perovskite solar cells on the basis of the heterostructure TiO2 / CH3CN3PbI3-xClx / Spiro-OMeTAD. The results of the conducted studies showed that the optimum values of the thicknesses of TiO2 and CH3CN3PbI3-xClx heterostructure films, which make it possible to obtain a high coefficient of efficiency of the solar cell, lie in relatively narrow limits. The carried out researches have shown the possibility of effective use of numerical physical-topological modeling for the development of perovskite solar cells, taking into account the features of photogeneration, recombination and transport of charge carriers in real heterostructures.
Keywords: Solar cell, perovskite, titanium dioxide, heterostructure, numerical simulation.
In this work, a study was made of the efficiency of the heat sink surface of a volumetric body with an internal heat source. An electrostatic analog of the distribution of the thermal field is chosen. A model of the convective flow is proposed, under certain initial and boundary conditions, the thermal conductivity of the medium transforming into heat removal. The conclusion is made about the ineffectiveness of the heat-conducting surface in the form of whip, finned and other designs of existing heat sinks, increasing only the mass, technological complexity of manufacture, thermal resistance and temperature of the heat-loaded element.
Keywords: Temperature field, convective heat transfer, effective heat sink area, electrostatic analog, similarity theory
The conditions, which must be met by modifying additives into electrolyte for receiving of the effective composite Ni-P coatings with anti-friction properties, and the possibility of choice of the effective modificators were discussed. The efficiently of the ultra-dispersion powders of oxides with the corunde and rutile structures, the carbon and boron nitride with diamond-like structures, and powders of the some W and Mg type structures was examined.
Keywords: structural phase disordering, nanostructures, compositional coatings, nano-diamond, anti-friction properties,modifiers
Described trends in the application of two-dimensional-periodic absorbing structures in optical and THz range. The results of calculation of the scatter and reflection of multilayer structures. Designed optimal parameters of the structures to monitor the greatest effect absorption.
Keywords: resonant absorption, plasmons, reflection coefficient, diffraction gratings, periodic structures