The simplest, most reliable and sufficiently accurate method of dosing bulk products is batch dosing by volume using measuring containers. The article considers a mathematical model of a volumetric dispenser. The combination of several methods of regulating the supply of bulk materials during batch dosing is ensured by building an accurate model of the drum dispenser.
Keywords: mathematical model of a drum dispenser, dosing process, friction, dynamic coefficient of friction, static coefficient of friction, bulk material
Intensive use of heavy energy-rich machinery on agricultural land has resulted in a significant overconsolidation of tillable land. It is obvious that overconsolidation of soils is one of the main reasons for reducing crop yields. This is especially evident on slope lands, which are exposed to many additional factors of degradation (deflation, surface washoff, destructuring, sliding of the topsoil to the slope bottom with the formation of swampy areas) resulting in a loss of yield of up to 12-15%. The peculiarities of slope lands place increased demands on the corresponding work technologies. However, existing tillage equipment cannot fully and qualitatively fulfill these demands. In this regard, the search for a rational solution to this problem based on the methodology of conceptual design is an urgent task. The system functioning is influenced by many external factors, such as the forms of organization of economic entities and their respective resource capabilities, the variety of cultivated fields by area, type of soil, crops, profile shape, climatic conditions, ecology, etc. Obviously, under these conditions, the solution to the problem of creating a slope land cultivation system (SLCS) at the modern level lies in the field of new information technologies that implement the idea of the entire life cycle integrity. However, the SLCS system does not exist in isolation. It interacts both with the land user and the cultivated soil. At that, the interaction is limited not only by the soil condition and the slope angle, but also by the profitability level, financial and technological capabilities, as well as environmental safety. In UML, the corresponding semantics are reflected in an additional set of dynamic diagrams. Use options or use case diagrams play a major role in modeling the behavior of a system, a subsystem, or a class. The use case diagram allows not only to formalize the relationship of functional requirements in the form of goals initiated by specific participants in the process of creating a SLCS system by a customer (land user), an ecologist and an economist, but also to develop, on the basis of a compromise and taking into account financial and technological constraints, various use cases that implement the global goal - "Increasing the efficiency of the SLCS functioning".
Keywords: concept design, deep tiller, universal modeling language, use options, use case diagram
The article deals with the main problems of obtaining experimental data on drying liquid dispersed products. The main difficulties of using a moisture meter to obtain kinetic curves of drying difficult-to-dry liquid materials are given. On the example of lignosulfonate drying curves of samples of liquid product in different conditions are obtained. Presented that the application of the proposed method of the experiment on the moisture meter does not lead to early completion of the operation of the analysis of the drying process.
Keywords: kinetics, moisture meter, drying, moisture, solvent, evaporation, lignosulfonates
Scientific research to determine the optimal combination of technical means in the system of cleaning and sorting seeds. We carried out a system analysis of the current state of technical means of cleaning and sorting. The main task of promising research and development work is the development of a high-precision computer-based seed sorter with an electron-optical analyzer of their properties, including the internal structure of seeds. The main result of the use of a complex of technical means of electron-optical cleaning and sorting of seeds in the selection and seed production of grain crops is an increase in their yield.
Keywords: seeds, cleaning, sorting, photo separator, x-ray, IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy
State programs aimed at the development of breeding and seed production in Russia require research related to the creation of new intelligent technical systems implemented in breeding equipment, in particular in self-propelled breeding planters. As a promising direction, it is proposed to develop an intelligent technology for sowing seed and implement it on the basis of a self-propelled seed drill.
Keywords: Selection, technology of intellectual seeding, self-propelled seeder, import substitution
The article provides a rationale for the design and technological parameters of barns, which are fundamental in their construction. Design features of the building and the principles of the organization of the maintenance of cows in them are given and described. The design and technological parameters of barns, providing optimal conditions for keeping cows with their loose housing, are noted.
Keywords: loose cowshed; cowshed; parameters; row; type; aft table; manure; stalls; efficiency
The analysis of research on the separation of rice seeds on new types of polymeric sieves showed the absence of regularities that provide the studied processes. There are no dependencies describing the effect of the kinematic parameters of the operation of the sieves on the intensity of the separation processes of rice seeds. We performed a system analysis of the sieves with different types of holes. In the work, mathematical dependences between the amplitude and frequency of oscillations are determined for swinging polymer sieves.
Keywords: Rice seeds, polymer sieves, separation process, grating mill, kinematic parameters, mathematical dependencies
The existing and promising methods of drying of coatings from organic solvents presented. The important role of the temperature of the drying kinetics, which determines the rate of chemical and rheological processes. Shown the crucial role of design and technology solutions. The main problem of experimental research, calculation and simulation, energy resource and environment in the development of processes and equipment for the evaporation of solvents and coating treatment is determined.
Keywords: kinetics, drying, solvent, mode, experiment, modeling, coating
The article considers the way of organizing the process of material drying from organic solvents. The typical kinetic curves, observed in the evaporation of solvents. Given received and the recommended equations for calculating the evaporation intensity and the surface temperature of the evaporation in the first period. The analysis of major scientific and technological problems arising in the implementation of new drying technologies.
Keywords: modeling, calculation, drying, solvent, kinetics, evaporation, energy saving
Based on the results of theoretical and experimental studies at FGBAC FNAC VIM, we conducted a system analysis of the existing gravitational grain cleaning machines and developed a prototype of a gravity-pneumatic seed-seeding machine (VIM-3). His laboratory (preliminary) tests were carried out. The general view, constructive and techno logical scheme of the machine are presented. The prototype of a cleaning machine can purify wheat seeds up to 99.5% by feeding the processed material up to 2.5 t / h with an impurity content of more than 80%, which corresponds to the category of OS and ES of GOST R 52325-2005, as well as to international norms .
Keywords: System analysis of grain cleaning machines, gravity column, pneumatic assortment channel, specific metal consumption, productivity increase
The appearance of new types of polymer gratings on the market, which have other functional and technical-operational indicators, raises the question of new kinematic solutions to their work. In this paper, questions of parametric optimization of the functioning of this type of sieves from the angle of their origin and kinematic sieves are considered. We have carried out a system analysis of existing technological schemes of lattice mills and identified promising areas of modernization.
Keywords: system analysis of technologies, grain separation, grating mill, parametric optimization, seed material, seed injuries, post-harvest grain processing
Energy costs for grain drying are about 30% of the total energy consumption for grain produc-tion. Reducing the energy consumption of drying is possible due to the use of a microwave field. In this case, it is necessary to develop a design of a convection drying zone with a microwave field which will provide uniform drying of the grain throughout the volume. For this purpose, it is advis-able to carry out the simulation of the process. The developed computer model of heat and moisture exchange in the grain layer allows to model one under varying parameters of the grain layer and the drying agent. A computer model implements a stepwise calculation method. According to this method, the grain layer is represented as a series of computer models of the elementary layer. The grain layer is divided into three sections. The specific power of the microwave field is set to con-stant throughout each part. In addition, the model takes into account the features of changing in the specific power of the microwave field in the drying zone from the moisture content of the grain and the distance from the magnetron. The air flow in the microwave convection zone can has an im-portant value for the energy intensity of the process. The paper presents the results of modeling grain drying with two variants of air distribution in the microwave convection zone. Graphs of changes in grain moisture in each of the sections of the layer are given. It is shown that when the air moves from the magnetron, the time and the non-uniformity of drying decrease.
Keywords: drying of grain, grain layer, microwave field, microwave - convection drying, heat and - moisture exchange, computer model, modeling
The present cultivators of the soil have a negligible width and depth of loosening is mainly up to 0.6 m. When the number of racks is significantly reduced completeness of loosening, increases the mass of the gun and increase traction resistance. In addition, the possibility of loosening soil to a greater depth is limited. There are rippers with surround deformers. They are inclined relative to each other vertical knife rack, rigidly connected to each other in the lower part with shingles made V-shaped with the apex directed upwards. In this architecture, the system deformers there is a need for analysis to determine the tensile strength in a first approximation: as much as possible to lengthen the elements of the blade without loss of strength and significant changes in their geometric characteristics of the flat cross-section. Reviewed the formulation of the calculation of the strength of the isotropic sloping steel plates of finite dimensions, a polygonal profile with rigidly clamped opposite edges of constant cross section, equal stiffness, as an element of deformers of the chisel type surround. Shows the justification of the selected geometric characteristics of the broken plate. Presents a preliminary finite element modeling using the software - computing complex Structure CAD (SCAD), considering static and dynamic loads. In the formulation of the numerical calculation primarily pursued the goal of establishing the adequacy of a solid model of the stress – strain state of a polygonal sloping steel plates of constant cross section with rigid pinched at the edges. It is established that the threat is a reduction in the actual thickness of the plate more than 1/3 of the project, which leads to failure of the individual piece of details. With little loss of thickness plots of displacements is characteristic reflects a valid value.
Keywords: The calculation of the strength, deep loosing, system of deformers, stress, strain, bending, a broken plate, clamped edges, geometric characteristics
The action of the microwave field is used for drying, pretreatment and disinfection of grain. In all these processes, it is very important to control the change in the parameters of the grain layer. The use of sensors for direct measurement of temperature and humidity of grain and air is difficult. The microwave field leads to errors in the measurements, and therefore the possibility of an indirect control of these quantities is considered. For the indirect measurement of these quantities, a computer model has been developed. To develop a computer model, a system of equations was used that describes the exchange of heat and moisture in the grain layer under the action of the microwave field and convection. Some equations in the mathematical model are partial differential equations. To develop a computer model, these equations were presented in an operator form. The article shows how this procedure was used to transform the equation showing the relationship between the grain temperature and the microwave field, air temperature and moisture content of the grain. This approach allowed the use of computer software for analysis and syn-thesis of control systems. In this case the Simulink software package was used. Simulink - a model for the exchange of heat and moisture in a thick layer of grain, when exposed to microwave and air, was created using elementary dynamic elements of automation. When developing a computer model, a step-by-step method is implemented. The essence of the method is that the grain layer is divided into elementary layers. The output parameters of one grain layer become input parameters for the next layer. A complete model for the exchange of heat and moisture in a layer of grain consists of models of elementary layers. The results of modeling the change in the temperature of grain heating confirmed the adequacy of the model. The use of this model in the control systems of drying and processing of grain will increase the accuracy of control and regulation.
Keywords: drying grain, grain layer, grain moisture, grain temperature, drying agent, microwave action, heat and moisture exchange, modeling
The use of sunflower husk waste allows to solve the problem of utilization of agricultural waste and obtaining adsorbents for wastewater treatment of industrial production from ions of heavy metals, in particular copper. Studies on the evaluation of the adsorption capacity of materials have been carried out and choose the optimal method of manufacturing the sorbent.
Keywords: husks of sunflower, vegetable adsorbents, waste water, heavy metal ions, melanin
The purpose of this study is to obtain the best regimes of presowing treatment of spring wheat seeds by the electromagnetic field of the microwave range, as a result of which a significant increase in the morphophysiological indices of their seedlings and, as a result, an increase in the yield of this crop.
Keywords: Microwave radiation, presowing treatment, radiation dose, seeds, yield, morphophysiological indicator, spring wheat
An algorithm for the synthesis of the optimal values of the parameters of precision manufacturing, assembly and balancing of assembly units and parts of machinery for agricultural purposes on the basis of the simulation of its dynamics. It is shown that the accuracy of the parameters of execution units of a conflict affect the cost of production and operation of the machine. This is the basis of the optimal values of these parameters for the search criteria to minimize the amount of these costs. Along with the optimized parameters into account other characteristics of the aggregates (their weight, mode of operation and so forth.), Which are related to the optimization of resources. A variation of the latter with the search for the optimal solution provides the required quality indicators of the unit. The proposed method of synthesis parameters tested calculation accuracy performance rotor grinding drum crusher feed DB-5. These calculations showed the possibility of redistribution of allowances for the execution of the test drum sizes for optimal reduction of production costs.
Keywords: agricultural machinery, machine, design, accuracy performance optimization
Results of application of laser technology of processing of seeds of a spring-sown field are presented in article. Results of researches confirm positive influence of application of laser technology, selection of the optimum processing conditions of seeds of wheat therefore productivity of the processed wheat of a grade of "Irgin" increases is carried out.
Keywords: intensive technology, use of the laser, mode of behavior, laser processing, efficiency, productivity, quality of products, radiation dose, experiment
Prospects of use of induction electroheating in agriculture are considered. The simplified method of calculation of a cylindrical induction water heater with an external magnetic conductor is received.
Keywords: electroheating, induction heating, inductor, magnetic conductor, magnetic induction, design current of the inductor
The article presents a description of the main factors, which are necessary for correct simulation of process drying in a fluidized bed of inert particles. The main difficulties encountered in the scaling of laboratory dryers. Specify the nature of the impact interaction of the particles of inert and drying agent on heat-mass transfer in the drying process. Presents the description of the statistical models used to simulate the interaction of particles of inert material. Specify the main parameters and assumptions of the model. Presets the experimental conditions for the analysis of the nature of the motion of individual particles in a fluidized bed.
Keywords: modeling, fluidization, inert, drying, mode, particle, layer, trajectory, scaling
The article actualizes the issue of increasing farm labor efficiency through automation and the introduction of robotics. The study found that farms of various types have a need to automate the process of harvesting the crop, which determined further directions of analysis. The authors presented the overlook of the current state of the market of agricultural robots and identified its key players. Suggested the solution to automate the process of harvesting fruits and vegetables by the family of AgroMultiBot robots.
Keywords: agriculture, robotics and automation of agricultural production; productivity, competition (competitors), family of AgroMultiBot robots
The efficiency of a timber harvesting company depends primarily on the proper selection of technologies and systems of machines that would satisfy as much as possible the natural - production requirements and the conditions in which the company operates. In the timber harvesting regions of Russia operating machinery conditions are quite different from each other. They differ in taxation indices of wood, soil, rainfall, terrain, temperature regimes. In this research the article classifies machine systems and processes to identify similar groups, which allow providing advice on their use in the various natural - production conditions, both individually and in various combinations. Machines are classified by the condition of their use depending on the terrain, soil conditions, the average volume of tree-length material and its maximum diameter. Technology processes are classified by types of finished products (wood, tree-length, assortment, chips, etc.), by place of processing of the object of labor, etc. Classification allows you to specify a limited number of the most appropriate to the specific natural - production conditions of technologies and machine systems.
Keywords: timber harvesting work, the classification of technological process, timber harvesting technologies, the formation of machine system, natural - production factors, logging waste, processing of brush wood
The article identifies the main directions of research in the field of ambient intelligence systems, expired at the present stage of world development. The author presented a brief review of the market of "smart technologies", noted trends in application of decision-making systems in the field of agriculture.
Keywords: agriculture, robotics and automation of agricultural production; productivity, competition (competitors), family of AgroMultiBot robots
The article deals with mini-CHP based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) application for agricultural enterprises power supply which have biogas production possibility. Electrical energy from biogas production technology is shown. The mini-CHP on SOFC power choosing methodology is considered. Mini-CHP on SOFC power calculation was performed by the example of the dairy farming agricultural enterprise.
Keywords: power supply, agricultural enterprise, mini-CHP on SOFC, biogas installation
The article presents a description of the nature of the behavior of the fluidized bed consisting of heterogeneous particles, in the apparatus used for drying the dispersed liquid products. Given a description of the features of the experimental setup and methods of processing of obtained results. Describes the characteristic of the observed inhomogeneities of the layer. Shown types formed in the layer of gas bubbles, and describes their coalescence in the layer. Describes the basic mechanisms of coalescence bubbles in a fluidized bed of heterogeneous particles.
Keywords: fluidization, layer, inert, drying, bubble, channel, mode, heterogeneity