Electrocatalytic systems based on platinum and tin oxides with different composition and microstructure characteristics were prepared via sequential electrochemical dispersion of tin and platinum electrodes under the action of an alternating pulsed current. The complex of physicochemical methods investigated the effect of electrolyte on the composition and structure obtained in the first stage of the synthesis of tin oxides.It is shown that the presence of tin oxide in a Pt-containing catalytic system generally has a promoting effect on the oxidation of ethanol on platinum. However, neither the composition nor the microstructure of the oxide affects the electrocatalytic properties of the Pt-containing catalyst.
Keywords: Pt/C, tin oxide, tin dioxide, ethanol, platinum nanoparticles, electrocatalysis, alternating current, metals electrooxidation, electrochemical dispersion, fuel cell
Methods for conducting polarization measurements on electrodes made of 1X18H9T steel are considered. Anodic polarization curves of steel 1X18H9T were obtained in solutions of electrolytes without stirring and with stirring. Comparison of the obtained anodic polarization curves allowed to reveal the rational current densities for realization of technological processes of combined anodic and mechanical processing of this steel.
Keywords: polarization curves, electrolytes, 1X18H9T steel, combined treatment
The estimation of the dependence of anode potential of the temperature and current density. It is established that the activation energy of the anodic oxidation process HORTA, HORTA-I1 and OITA decreases with increasing potential, which corresponds to the limiting stage of charge transfer. The activation energy of the anodic process refers to the collective processes of transformation of the catalytic coating and anodic oxidation of the chloride ions. The latter process limits the adsorption of atomic chlorine, and the increase in activation energy is correlated with increased corrosion resistance. The dependence of the activation energy of from the content in the catalytic layer of iridium has an extreme character. The maximum is reached when the content of iridium 60-70%.
Keywords: ORTA, ORTA-I1, OITA, activation energy, anodic oxidation, adsorption of chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, chlorine, charge transfer, a mixed oxide, electrode potential
The article examines the effect of polytitanate potassium intercalated copper on the structure and physico-mechanical properties of composite materials containing as a filler. Matrix composite material is a mixture of polyethylene 277 and copper-polymer complex of polyacrylamide. It is shown that the pre-intercalation of polytitanate potassium copper improve of physico-mechanical properties of the composite material.
Keywords: intercalated, polytitanate potassium, polyethylene, copper-polymer complex of polyacrylamide, friction coefficient, wear resistance, structure, hardness, elemental composition
In order to determine the prospects of the use of solar panels as a basis for the creation of the charger, you must know the several parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, coefficient of efficiency and others. In this paper, these parameters are measured based on the results of research the current-voltage characteristics of the solar panels, resulting in an automatic mode with the use of a computer and a digital meter E7-20.
Keywords: Solar cell, solar panel, solar battery, power source, charger, current-voltage characteristic, coefficient of efficiency, LCR meter
The article presents a comparative analysis of nanopowders of copper obtained by electrolysis with the use of the stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). It is established that the properties of powders of copper determines PVP polymer film formed on the surface of nanoparticles
Keywords: Nanopowders of copper, stabilization of particles, granulometric composition, differential thermal analysis, water-soluble polymer
In the article methods of utilization of PET. The chemical method chosen by us is one the most priority types of the processing of plastic containers (bottles - PET). Also results of some physical and mechanical tests of the modified PET
Keywords: PET, chemical modification, polyisobutylene, recycling, extrusion
The effect of sodium chloride concentration on the job ORTA electrodes. It is found that the electrodes OPTA, especially in the sodium chloride concentration below 50 g/liter, three groups occur conjugate processes, oxidation of chloride ions, the solid-phase oxidation of the anode material, dissolution of the active catalytic coating. The processes of oxidation of chloride ions prevail in current densities of 0.001 - 0.032 A/cm2 at high current densities become essential processes of oxidation of the ruthenium oxide coating. The oxidation of chloride ions, especially at concentrations less than 50 g/liter can be described as occurring in a constantly evolving anode active material due to its corrosion and solid-phase oxidation.
Keywords: ruthenium oxide-titanium anode, sodium hypochlorite, polarization dependence, water disinfection, tafel dependence, oxidation of chloride ions, solid-phase oxidation of the anode material, changes in the activity of the anode material, anion ruthenate, an
This paper summarizes the study and analysis of numerous published sources, the results of experimental work to identify the species composition of microorganisms dispersed rocks, the nature and extent of their participation in corrosion process of construction of engineering structures. Experimentally established species composition of microflora of dispersed rocks the Rostov-on-Don city, lists the most active species capable of damaging protective coatings and metal. Are briefly characterized some of the mechanisms of interaction of the products of microbial activity with building materials that lead to corrosion. Identified species has the ability to destroy the materials containing organic derivatives. Indicated lithological varieties of dispersed rocks within which biocorrosion can proceed more intensively.
Keywords: corrosion, micro-organisms, disperse rocks, engineering constructions, metal structures, bacteria, actinomycetes, micromycetes.
This paper presents study on the influence of constant and pulsed anodic polarization on the value of the building and properties of materials of grounding. Mass of anodic dissolution rate was calculated
Keywords: corrosion, cathodic protection, constant, pulsed polarization, anodic grounding, oil pipelines, gas pipelines
Increase of productivity of processes of sedimentation of coverings on the restored surfaces of details of cars without decline in quality of the received deposit is a main objective on the way of improvement of galvanic processes. Productivity of galvanic sedimentation depends on the size of potential of the cathode and the anode; from concentration of components of electrolyte about a surface of sedimentation (cathode); from uniformity of delivery and dispersal of ions of metal on a sedimentation surface; from quantity of active sites of the cathode; from nature of passivation of the cathode; from temperature of electrolyte and from the speed of the movement of electrolyte in prikatodny space. Very strongly passivating of a cathodic surface limits the possible growth of productivity of galvanic sedimentation. Passivating consists in education on a surface of the cathode of the continuous passive film consisting of hydrogen, products of reaction of metal with electrolyte components, oxygen of air and foreign inclusions. The passive film is almost insoluble and disturbs electrocrystallization process, shielding a cathodic surface. And cathode covering speed a passive film directly depends on density of cathodic current. It is possible to assume that at achievement of some value of density of cathodic current the speed of formation of a passive film will exceed, the speed of delivery of ions of metal to a cathodic surface and origin of crystals of the besieged metal will become impossible. And on the remained active sites of the cathode where the passive film is absent or has the smallest thickness and growth rate, there will be centers of growth of crystals of metal (dendrites) on which there will be a concentration of the main processes of electrocrystallization. That is the cathodic surface of the restored detail will become covered by the local centers of sedimentation of metal – dendrites. The passive film interferes with growth of limit density of cathodic current at which receiving qualitative electroplated coating is possible. Mechanical elimination of a passive film during sedimentation of a covering considerably facilitates process of electrocrystallization and formation of a layer of metal on the processed detail surface, provides increase of uniformity of the received layer of metal and its microhardness, and also will prevent active formation of local sites of growth of dendrites at the high density of current.
Keywords: passive film, adsorption, sedimentation productivity, electrocrystallization, mechanical activation, crystal lattice
Carry to the main advantages of galvanic ways of restoration: possibility of formation of a layer from several micrometers thick to 1-2 mm. metal or a combination of metals with the set properties, restoration "in the size", that is without the subsequent machining, simultaneous restoration of several surfaces and use of a small amount of electrolyte. A number of the devices allowing to provide the demanded conditions is developed for implementation of galvanomekhanichesky sedimentation of coverings. As the activating elements in these devices generally apply abrasive materials which working surface, in the course of work, "is salted", that is it is hammered with cutting products. It considerably reduces efficiency of activation of the cathode and uniformity of the received deposit in view of introduction in the formed layer the activating elements of products of activation. The offered device developed by Zakharov Yu.A. and Spitsyn I.A. it is deprived of such shortcoming in view of application of the activating elements in the form of leaders and the conducted abrasive rollers connected by a belt drive. For elimination of this lack of the existing devices by Zakharov Yu.A. and Spitsyn I.A. (patent No. 2503753) the device was developed for galvanomekhanichesky sedimentation of coverings on internal cylindrical surfaces of details. Difference of the offered device is that at sedimentation of an electrodeposit, the conducting and conducted rollers, being rolled on the activated cathode surface, rotate with various district speed because of their various diameter. As pulleys of leaders and the conducted rollers are connected by a belt drive, to the transfer relation no more than 0,8-0,9, on shaft of rollers there is various district force forcing the conducted rollers to slip rather cathodic surface. It provides better removal of the passivating film and continuous change of the surface of the activating roller contacting to the activated cathodic surface. Thus, the free surface of the activating roller is washed by a channel of electrolyte, being cleared of activation products that interferes with formation of so-called "zasalivaniye" of a wor1king surface of the activating elements (rollers).
Keywords: case detail, restoration, repair, defect, resource way of restoration, car repair production
The process of electrochemical oxidation of carbon monooxide on Pt/C catalytsts with different structure of carbon support was studied. Pt/C catalysts were prepared via electrochemical dispersion of platinum electrodes under the action of an alternating pulse current. It was shown that the structure of the carbon support has a significant impact on the degree of agglomeration of platinum nanoparticles and, consequently, on the value of the specific surface area of the catalyst, but does not affect the degree of filling of platinum by carbon monoxide.
Keywords: fuel cell, electrocatalysis, electrochemical dispersion, Pt/C catalyst, carbon monoxide, CO electrochemical oxidation
Improvement of technological process of galvanizing in flowing electrolyte without decrease in its reliability and quality of the received deposit can be carried out by carrying out anode etching of the processed surface directly in the main electrolyte of sedimentation. And, providing such conditions of anode etching at which, the details which are formed on a surface products of reactions easily are removed a channel of electrolyte is possible. For the purpose of identification of extent of influence of technology factors on anode dissolution of the processed surface it is necessary to conduct elektrokhikmichesky researches. The installation including electric was for this purpose developed and made and gidravklichesky speak rapidly. The Elektkrichesky part contains power-supply circuits of an electrolytic cell to the asymmetric variables odnopoluperiodno straightened, dvukhkpoluperiodno straightened by current and straightened by current with the lowered pulsation, and also a chain of heating of working electrolyte. The hydraulic scheme of experimental installation includes: the kisloktostoyky electric pump, pipelines, filters, the device for an electrolytic precipitation of coverings and a bathtub with electrolyte. Electrolyte in a cell moved by means of the electric pump. Giving changed in steps, due to change of diameter of the section through passage of the giving pipeline by means of replaceable inserts. Authors of the device for electrolytic drawing coverings are Zakharov Yu.A. and Spitsyn I.A. (patent No. 2155827). The design allows: to increase the speed of a channel of electrolyte; to carry out activation of the cathode, using energy of a channel of electrolyte; to increase the accuracy of copying of the cathode the activating elements; to use higher density of current and to reduce power consumption of the device. Electrolyte, in the course of sedimentation, was constantly filtered. As filtering material used fiber glass. The filter if necessary it is possible to dismantle and wash out quickly. Such filtering element slightly interferes with a channel of electrolyte, is simple in service, is cheap and quite sufficient. Thus, the offered design of experimental installation allows to conduct necessary researches of process of sedimentation of a zinc electrodeposit for its improvement.
Keywords: case detail, restoration, repair, defect, resource way of restoration, car repair production
Prospects for manufacturing electrical investigated products based on modified copper oxide (I) a novolac resin. It is shown that copper oxide modification improves the physico-mechanical, tribological, electrical properties, resistance to mechanical wear and oxidation products of the materials. Introduction of coke in the material increases its durability when operating on the worn contact network. Trial runs have shown a trolley parks that the contact insertion trolley manufactured using a modified copper oxide (I) novolak binder in performance on average 2-4 times higher than the commercial materials of different manufacturers
Keywords: trolley collector insert, carbon and graphite material, modification of the novolak binder, copper oxide (I), sea trials
Results of researches of electrochemical machining of Alnico and Х25К15 magnetic alloys are presented. Problems of conventional machining processes (cutting, milling, drilling and grinding) use a sharp cutting tool are noted. The expediency of use NaNO3 of electrolytes at high-speed anodic dissolution of magnetic work piece surfaces has been demonstrated. Agency of chemical and phase composition of magnetic alloys on a landform of a surface after the ECM in нитратных water electrolytes is installed. The gained results of experimental researches allow to control parameters of a technological process with given accuracy and speed of electrochemical machining of parts.
Keywords: high-speed anodic dissolution, magnets cast constants, alnico, electrochemical machining (ECM), surface roughness, current efficiency, electrochemical marking
In this article methods of copper ultrafine powders stabilization from agglomeration and aggregation by water soluble polymer in process of production by electrolysis on vibrating cathode, as well as their effect on physical and mechanical properties of polymer composites.
Keywords: ultrafine powders, stabilization, friction coefficient, wear, structure of composite materials
The effect of two surface-active substances (SAS) - polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyacrilamide (PAA) on formation kinetics of anodic synthesized electrolytes for copper powders production was reviewed, as well as product properties. It was found that the copper powder properties defined by polymer film of PVP and PAA formed on cathode surface. Nanosized particles percentage increasing by dints of copper ions direct discharge from ammonia complex ions provided by polymer film. In the electrolyte containing PAA is possible to obtain copper powder with nanosized (less 100 nm) particles content of 50,2%, average size in nanosized range is 43nm with needle-dendrite particle shape
Keywords: electrolytic copper powder, vibrating cathode, polarization curve, chronopotentiometry, potential dip after current tripping, particle size distribution, water soluble polymer, nanosized particle, ammonia chloride, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrilamide, am
Regularities of copper's Nano powders receiving by an electrolysis method in ammine electrolyte, with the soluble copper anode and the corrugated titanic cathode are investigated. With additional use of polyacrylamide as the stabilizer of particles' growth of Nano powder of polyacrylamide. It is shown that in the polyacrylamide's presence the share of Nano dimensional fraction of copper's powder raises and the contents in the final product of copper`s oxides decreases. To what Nano powders' roentgenograms testify.
Keywords: copper's Nano powder, electrolysis, part of electrolyte, phase structure
This paper examines the influence of pre-treatment steel surfaces on the kinetics of electrodeposition of lead and its anodic behavior in solution of perchloric acid. Defined cathodic current density of interest for the use of electrodeposited lead in the backup sources of electricity.
Keywords: electrodeposition, surface preparation, potential, adsorption, surface morphology, anodic dissolution
Sedimentation of electrodeposits with activation of a cathodic surface is in the flowing and contact way the most perspective way of restoration of internal cylindrical surfaces of details of cars. The existing devices for realization of this way have the merits and demerits, and can be therefore modernized and improved. On the basis of the analysis of the existing devices for galvanomekhanichesky sedimentation of coverings the new design is offered, novelty and which advantages is confirmed with the patent Russian Federation for the invention. The device contains the top and lower flanges in which there are branch pipes for a supply and removal of electrolyte. Between flanges the processed detail with rubber laying is established. The received tight electrolytic cell is pulled together with vertical couplers between a bed and a clamping plate. In the lower flange on a vertical axis the activating head consisting of the krylchatka bearing on herself three levers with is established by the activating elements which are movably fixed on them. Axial movement of a krylchatka is limited to the removable motionless anode. Pressing of the activating elements to the processed surface is provided at the expense of the elastic shock-absorbers located in rectangular grooves of a krylchatka and influencing the lower shoulder of levers. Tokopodvod to a detail is carried out by means of the contact device fixed on a bed, and to the anode via the contact plug from a source of a direct current. Circulation of electrolyte is provided with the acidproof hydraulic pump. The offered design is simple in production and doesn't demand existence of the expensive specialized equipment. The operating procedure with the device and sequence of operations doesn't contradict technology of sedimentation of electrodeposits. In article the main advantages of the device in relation to existing in car repair production are opened and proved.
Keywords: case detail, restoration, repair, defect, resource way of restoration, car repair production
This article investigated the possibility of creating a new composite material for electrical products based on natural graphite as the main component with the addition of a plasticizer . Adding plasticizer necessary to solve technological difficulties pressing process products with a high content of natural graphite . This is due to large shear between the interphase graphite flakes . As the plasticizer used polyvinylacetate . The paper presents the technological aspects of production material and study the influence of the plasticizer on the composition, both qualitative and quantitative . Conclusions about the most appropriate ratio to the amount of graphite esmestvennogo adds plasticizer.
Keywords: Еlectrotechnical products, softener for graphite, composite material, copper-graphite composition, tokosjemny material, current collecting Box, рolyvinylacetate, modification of the surface of graphite.
The catalytic activity of Pt/C and PtxNi/C electrocatalysts prepared by borohydride methode was studed. It was established that the specific activity of fresh prepared Pt3,7Ni/C catalyst in oxygen electroreduction reaction is higher in compare with Pt/C material. After treatment of Pt3,7Ni/C material in the hot acid nickel in the surface layers of nanoparticles was dissolved and the composition of nanoparticles was changed to Pt5,6Ni. The electrochemical surface area of the Pt5,6Ni catalyst and specific activity was slightly decreased after corrosion treatment.
Keywords: platinum electrocatalysts, corrosion stability of the nanoparticles, fuel cells, X-ray diffraction, borohydride synthesis
In this paper we propose basic geometric, mass and electrical parameters of the element for collection of static electricity from the surface of the textile. This element is a reversible electrochemical charge storage system based on nanostructured nickel oxide and carbon cloth. Element has a planar structure, it is flexible, lightweight, safety and ergonomic. Proposed element can be used as a power source for the Microsystems technique in "smart clothes".
Keywords: "smart clothes", microsystems technique, static electricity, supercapacitor, composite material NiO/C
The characteristic of ammonium electrolytes for electrodeposition of an alloy zinc-nickel is given. Corrosion properties, microhardness and phase structure of coverings by an alloy zinc-nickel are studied.
Keywords: electrodeposition, properties of coverings an alloy zinc-nickel, the electrolytes containing chloride of ammonium