The paper presents the classification of the main causal aspects of the occurrence of catastrophes of large-span bridge structures, given with elements of the analysis of actual examples of the destruction of structures of various types. Also are described the innovative developments applicable in the field.
Keywords: fatigue failure, bridge, large-span bridge, failure of structures, destruction of bridge structures, accident in construction, resonance, wear, aerodynamics of bridge structures, stiffness beam, bolted joint
The paper presents the systematization of the main methods for increasing the rigidity and stability of the cable-stayed and hanging types bridge structures , its given in conjunction with the analysis of the real objects. Among the methods presented are such techniques as: improving the quality of the material; additional structural elements that perceive vibrations; modification of the main elements of the design scheme. Also in the paper innovative developments applicable in the field of study are described.
Keywords: transport structure, bridge, cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge, bridge construction, guyed, pylon, rigidity of the bridge structure, stability of the bridge structure, operational safety of the bridge, aerodynamics of the bridge
Article is devoted problems of safety of traffic. In given article are sounded a number of the reasons of occurrence of failures on highways. In article questions of influence of psychophysiological features of drivers on occurrence accidents are considered. The special attention is given that use of cellular telephones by drivers (despite prohibition by traffic regulations), and also every possible advertising materials in sight of drivers do not promote concentration of attention on driving process. Also in article questions of increase of safety of pedestrians, as participants of traffic are mentioned. In article the interrelation between road conditions and safety of traffic is investigated. That fact is marked, the reasons of adverse influence of road conditions can be obvious and hidden. In article the developed practice of roads design is analyzed. The given practice, in a due measure, does not consider requirements of landscape designing. Which, in turn, though are registered in the arch of rules, but have recommendatory character. Also in article questions of use of the minimum parameters of highways are mentioned at its designing.
Keywords: Safety of traffic, accidents , a highway, the driver, the pedestrian, roads design, a road condition, road conditions, intensity of movement, the road maintenance, landscape design of road
Porous concrete is a new type of concrete with high permeability of water flows. It is advisable to use this type of concrete in road construction for the device filtration zones. This will allow to remove water from the carriageway, especially in places where there is no storm sewer. Infiltration of water flows through concrete pavement coatings contributes to their rapid removal from the surface, reducing slipperiness and water planning. The use of macroporous concrete will minimize flooding of car parks and roads. The results of the study confirm that permeable concrete surfaces function stably over time and are not silted with sand and soil.
Keywords: porous concrete, permeable surface, filtration, storm sewage, water
The article discusses the use of reinforced polymer fibers in architectural and structural design of bridges on the example of structures in the Netherlands. The chemical structure of this material is presented - a polymer matrix reinforced with natural or artificial fibers. A brief historical background of the use of composite materials is given, a comparative analysis of structures made of new construction material and the traditional one is carried out. The problems and possibilities of this relatively new material are discussed. The variants of constructive solutions for the bridge construction of a new generation are proposed. The basic methods for the production of bridge components that meet aesthetic and economic requirements are described: the use of modular elements of the edges of the flooring, the construction of smart formwork and monocoque structures. The physicochemical properties of polymeric materials have been studied in detail, of which it is currently possible to manufacture reinforcement for bridges. In conclusion, the analysis of the effectiveness of the use of this material in architecture and construction over the past decades has been carried out and suggestions have been made about the future vector of the study and application of polymers.
Keywords: biocomposites, bio-resins, composite materials, lamination, monocoque structures, bridge deck, bridge construction, pultrusion profile
The paper considers the existing analysis of traffic at the intersection of Ave. Lenina - st. Koroleva. A new scheme for the organization of traffic at the intersection is proposed, the calculation of the traffic light cycle is carried out, taking into account the introduction of new traffic lights. The results of the research will allow solving a number of problems of the road complex of the city of Donetsk to improve the transport and operational status of the existing network of public roads of local importance and the structures on them, bringing the technical parameters and the level of engineering equipment of the roads in line with the achieved traffic intensity.
Keywords: road safety, traffic management at the intersection, traffic light traffic control
The paper considers the existing analysis of traffic at the intersection of Ave. Lenina - st. Maxim Gorky. A new scheme for the organization of traffic at the intersection is proposed, the calculation of the traffic light cycle is carried out, taking into account the introduction of new traffic lights. The results of the research will allow solving a number of problems of the road complex of the city of Donetsk to improve the transport and operational status of the existing network of public roads of local importance and the structures on them, bringing the technical parameters and the level of engineering equipment of the roads in line with the achieved traffic intensity. The article was published as part of the implementation of the program of the International Forum "Victorious May 1945".
Keywords: road safety, traffic management at the intersection, traffic light traffic control
The article deals with the problem of pedestrian crossings and congestion of highways of the city of Volgograd. It described the situation on the highways and solutions to eliminate congestion on the road. Car traffic was conditionally divided into 3 categories: transit, the transit from the center and the car flow moving into the center. Studied the question of the safety of pedestrians on the road, because, except for pedestrians with the intersection increases their safety. The study and analysis of all previously implemented measures was proposed construction of underground pedestrian tunnels. Several embodiments of tunnel junctions have been considered. Analysis of the current transport situation revealed the busiest places in the city center.It was noted that the construction of underpasses solve the problem of vehicular traffic in the city center and pedestrian safety, and the city will have new underground space.
Keywords: Сar flow,highway, tunnel transition, transit transport, carriageway, longitudinal,security,road traffic
This article describes the approbation of the humidity sensor in the real operating conditions of the road. The authors have developed a protective design of humidity sensors that meets the requirements for their laying in the ground floor, developed a mobile portable data reader. The technology of calibration, calibration and laying of sensors in the soil of the roadbed is presented. The analysis of the data obtained after calibration of the sensors.
Keywords: the soil subgrade, moisture monitoring in the conditions of the road, the humidity sensors
The main purpose of this work is to determine the optimal operation modes of vibratory rollers, which contribute to the effective compaction of sandy soils. The relevance of the article is due to the need to apply different methods of work of vibrating rollers when compacting sandy soils, taking into account constantly changing conditions. The article reveals the dependencies of the main indicators in the production of compaction: the speed of the roller during compaction, the weight of the roller, the thickness of the compacted soil layer and the number of penetrations. The practical significance lies in the possibility of determining the optimal operating modes of various vibratory rollers during the compaction of sandy soils, which will determine the most productive and economically feasible parameters of their use
Keywords: compaction, compaction efficiency, vibration roller, sandy soil, compacted layer thickness
In the construction and use of software technologies, including roads, using GIS and CAD technology. We can also use technologies without data to work with attribute information. GIS is used to manage a large number of different-scale information on construction, reconstruction,etc.Any construction consists of several stages, including the construction of roads, starting, as we see from the planning, then the design and coordination of objects and putting it into operation. GIS during construction is considered in conjunction with all stages., at what first analyze the location of the object on the map. GIS in construction is one of the most important links in the overall planning system.
Keywords: construction, geographic information systems, reconstruction,management, stages, planning, digitization, route, facilities, road
The construction and repair of the road network, taking into account the use of new materials, technology and, accordingly, technologies, raises the question of improving the management system of work methods and the targeted use of road construction machinery. The constructed algorithms for the constant monitoring and control of the execution of work on the objects are based on the methods of pattern and character recognition. This control system monitors and controls the movement of construction equipment and functional operations performed by the working bodies of road-building machines in real time. The search and selection of optimal solution algorithms, both managerial and production tasks, is based on solving problems in conditions of uncertain factor space and on the basis of economic justification. The main criterion for the advancement of production automation is economic feasibility.
Keywords: integrated mechanization and automation of road construction works, automated control systems, pattern recognition, 3D model, information systems, uncertainty, factor space, structural layers, road bed, auto grader, machine
The developed equipment is being created to increase the cost savings during the construction of the road infrastructure, to improve the quality of temporary winter roads, as well as to build them more quickly and conveniently. This technique replaces two cars in the construction of auto winter roads.
Keywords: auto-wintering, melting, combination, versatility, innovation, snow melting unit, economy, application, design, methods
The developed version of the snow plow plow is created in order to improve the performance of a single unit of equipment when clearing snow on wide streets and to preserve unimpeded movement in a dense stream of cars, as well as the use of technology on narrow streets
Keywords: clearing, productivity, folding, trails, KAMAZ, transportation, costs, area, speed, snow
The article deals with the problem of the functional state of the bridge park in Russia. The statistics of the number of bridges, newly built bridges. Attention is focused on the inconsistency of old bridges with modern regulatory requirements for safety, carrying capacity, and carrying capacity. Noted on the relevance of flood impact on bridges and roads. The causes of occurrence are described. The problem of flood forecasting is highlighted. Examples of accidents of bridge structures from the effects of water flow are given: sediment, roll of supports and abutments, erosion of the embankment approach. Based on the situation in the city of Chita, the statistics of the frequency of flooding in different years are given, the critical levels of these disasters are indicated, and statistics on the consequences of the impact of the flood is given. The impact of the normative water flow is considered, and it is proposed to analyze the effect of the excess flow arising from the maximum level of bottling. Presents the results of calculations for which comparisons are made of various approaches to determine the depth of erosion of the channel.
Keywords: bridges, flood impact, safety, bridge destruction, regulatory documents, erosion depth, water flow
This article is dedicated to one of the symbols of Volgograd city, which is the Astrakhanskiy Bridge. We described the history of creation and the technical specifications of the bridge over the Tsaritsa river. After conducting an investigation, some defects in the bridge construction were uncovered. The framework arcs have longitudinal cracks, the protective layer of concrete is destroyed; the longitudinal main reinforcement is exposed and corroded. The protective layer of concrete was removed and the longitudinal main reinforcement was corroded on the longitudinal beams. During operation of the bridge, the defects that decrease load capacity and durability appeared: destruction of the protective layer of concrete on a plate of about 2 square meters. This led to the beginning of corrosion of the lower reinforcement net. Steel brackets, holding the walkway slabs, are heavily corroded; the protective paint coating on them is destroyed over significant lengths. The analysis of detected damage allowed to evaluate their impact on the durability and load capacity of the construction and determine those, who are responsible for its occurrence. It is noted that postponing of repair operations has a negative impact on the state of the bridge.
Keywords: bridge, city symbol, superstructure, roadway plate, defects, arch, bridge system, bearing structures, durability, load capacity
In this paper, the authors present a method for estimating the longitudinal adhesion coefficient of motor vehicles with road covering on approaches to level crossings. A feature of the technique is the possibility of using as input data in assessing the coupling qualities of road pavements, a large number of variables characterizing both moving vehicles and road paving combined with weather and climate factors. A multi-factor assessment of the adhesion coefficient at approaches to level crossings contributes to the improvement of traffic safety at railroad crossings as part of the development of a road maintenance management system
Keywords: adhesion coefficient, level crossing, road maintenance, fuzzy decision tree
This article considers the use of asphalt as the main component of the cold organo-mineral mixture intended for patching of city streets and roads during the off-season. The General characteristics of mixtures and their components are given, the pros and cons, as well as the possibility of their application are given. As a powder emulsifier and activator, it is recommended to use lime-containing waste (calcium oxide hydrate) of the chemical industry.
Keywords: organo-mineral mixture, asphalt granulate, asphalt concrete, road construction, binder, lime-containing waste
In article traffic safety and capacity of bridge crossings is considered. The road accident which happened on the bridge crossing sharply reduces its capacity and, therefore, all road in general. At emergence of danger to the movement in difficult road conditions the driver is compelled to apply the emergency braking. Thus the road accident won't occur when a distance between cars more or is equal to the size of a stopping way. At determination of length of a stopping way of the car at the emergency braking values of sizes of time of delay of operation of the brake drive and time of increase of delay are used.
Keywords: traffic safety, bridge crossing, capacity, stopping way, distance
The main problems of Russian transport infrastructure are considered. On the example of European experience the ways of solving these problems are proposed. The article also discusses in more detail the transport situation in the city of Rostov-on-don, what are the problems and how they can be solved in the near future.
Keywords: transport infrastructure, highways, Parking, concept, neighborhood, traffic flow, car, Parking, building, congestion, flow, disaster
The process of designing open-cast mining, in particular a quarry, is justification of technical solutions, economic efficiency, environmental and industrial safety of the construction of a new or reconstruction of the old quarry, identification of its key parameters characterizing the quarry as an industrial facility. The article raises the question of providing the enterprises of the oil and gas industry with construction materials, and, in particular, the project side of the main stages is being studied. So, in the article the features of engineering surveys, geological exploration and design works are studied in detail. The section ""Surveys"" describes the composition of the full complex of engineering surveys, the necessary grounds for their performing, as well as the requirements for their implementation. In the ""Design"" section, the composition of project documentation for the quarry development is studied in detail. The strategic tasks, which are solved by the project of common mineral resources deposits open development, are presented. The article reveals the main design (technical) solutions that should be adopted at various stages of the project documentation development. Special attention is paid to the disturbed lands reclamation section. The project stages are also described. In the section ""Obtaining the right to use a subsoil plot for the purpose of commonly used minerals mining "", the process of licensing of quarries and possible schemes for registration of rights is described. The conclusion is made about the need for further development and modernization of normative acts regulating relations for the preparation of project documentation.
Keywords: elaboration of design documents, design, stripping, common commercial minerals, quarry, engineering survey, geological exploration, licensing, mining rights
The possibility of revealing the main defects that arise when strengthening reinforced concrete structures by external reinforcement systems based on carbon fibers is considered. The efficiency of active and passive methods of thermography is compared, and the possibility of using the passive method at negative ambient temperatures is considered. Under laboratory conditions, ferroconcrete samples with defects in the form of air bubbles and glue were made and a comparison of the mapping of these defects on thermograms was made.
Keywords: composite materials, reinforcement, external reinforcement systems, infrared thermography, defect, work quality assessment, technical condition assessment, span structures, bridge supports
In article traffic safety in intensive transport streams on bridge crossings is considered. In a case when the bridge crossing has on one lane in each direction, at repair of a half of width of the carriageway - density of a transport stream sharply increases. The increase in density of a transport stream leads to change of speed of the movement of vehicles and to reduction of minimum safe distance between the cars moving in the passing direction on the bridge crossing during its repair or reconstruction. At the movement of vehicles with minimum safe distance specified in the table the maximum capacity of the bridge crossing at its repair or reconstruction will be provided.
Keywords: traffic safety, bridge crossing, intensity of the movement, repair of the carriageway, minimum safe distance
This article focuses on a method of drone-assisted assessment of road transportation and exploitation conditions. The nature and types of defects to the road surface and their effect on calculated speed of motion are registered based on the inclusion of a private coefficient. This coefficient is calculated based on the presence, amount, and relative area of motion. The algorithm of this method is implemented as a software programme, which allows to increase operational accuracy of the calculation. Additionally, the developed method allows to implement expedited assessment of an automobile road's transportation and exploitation conditions.
Keywords: automobile road, road surface defects, transportation and exploitation conditions, air drone
Article is devoted questions of road design taking into account its visual smoothness. In article questions of influence of visual smoothness on the providing by it of velocity of movement of vehicles are considered. In article the developed practice of roads design is analyzed. The given practice, in a due measure, does not consider requirements of landscape designing. Which, in turn, though are registered in the arch of rules, but have recommendatory character. Also in article questions of use of the minimum parameters of highways are mentioned at its designing. The necessary increase in the minimum parametres of norms of designing for maintenance of movement of vehicles with settlement speeds is recommended. The special attention in article is given transitive curves as their use at observance of principles of coordination of elements of the plan and a longitudinal profile provides visual smoothness and clearness of a line of a highway. It in turn raises traffic safety on these lines. The considerable attention is given the analysis of technical and psychological safety, as to the reasons of emergencies on roads. In article raising factors of values of radiuses for achievement of psychological comfort by the driver are offered at passage of curves to the plan.
Keywords: Road line, longitudinal profile, visual smoothness, landscape designing, radius of a horizontal curve, spiral curve, safety of traffic